Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes, generally Vitis vinifera or its hybrids with Vitis labrusca or Vitis rupestris.
An alcoholic drink, or alcoholic beverage, is a drink that contains a substantial amount of ethanol, a depressant which in low doses causes euphoria, reduced anxiety, and sociability and in higher doses causes intoxication, stupor and unconsciousness.
Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, is a species of Vitis, native to the Mediterranean region, Central Europe, and southwestern Asia, from Morocco and Portugal north to southern Germany and east to northern Iran.
Vitis rupestris is a species of grape native to the United States that is known by many common names including July, Coon, sand, sugar, beach, bush, currant, ingar, rock, and mountain grape.
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Grapes ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients, as yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula C2H5OH.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron, or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group is bound to a saturated carbon atom.
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These variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, and the production process.
Terroir is the set of all environmental factors that affect a crop's phenotype, including unique environment contexts, farming practices and a crop's specific growth habitat.
Many countries define legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine; these typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production.
An appellation is a legally defined and protected geographical indication used to identify where the grapes for a wine were grown; other types of food often have appellations as well.
There are also wines made from fermenting other fruits or cereals, whose names often specify their base, with some having specific names.
Wines made from plants other than grapes include rice wine and various fruit wines such as those made from plums or cherries.
Fruit wines are fermented alcoholic beverages made from a variety of base ingredients ; they may also have additional flavors taken from fruits, flowers, and herbs.
Rice wine, also known as mijiu, is an alcoholic drink made from rice, traditionally consumed in East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima.
Some well known example are hard cider from apples, perry from pears, pomegranate wine, and elderberry wine.
The pomegranate is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub in the family Lythraceae, subfamily Punicoideae, that grows between 5 and 10 m tall.
The earliest known evidence of wine comes from Georgia, where 8000-year-old wine jars were found.
Traces of wine have also been found in Iran with 7000-year-old wine jars and in Armenia, in the 6100-year old Areni-1 winery, the earliest known winery.
The Areni-1 winery is a 6100-year-old winery that was discovered in 2007 in the Areni-1 cave complex in the village of Areni in the Vayots Dzor province of Armenia by a team of Armenian and Irish archaeologists.
Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia.
Wine had reached the Balkans by c. 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece, Thrace and Rome.
The Balkan Peninsula, or the Balkans, is a peninsula and a cultural area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe with various and disputed borders.
Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, also known since ancient times as Hellas, is a country located in southeastern Europe.
Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects, which are evident at normal serving sizes.
Wine has long played an important role in religion.
Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; Judaism also incorporates it in the Kiddush and Christianity in the Eucharist.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The Cult of Dionysus was strongly associated with satyrs, centaurs, and sileni, and its characteristic symbols were the bull, the serpent, tigers/leopards, the ivy, and the wine.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River, situated in the place that is now the country Egypt.