the Two-Round System


The two-round system is a voting method used to elect a single winner, where the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate.


However, if no candidate receives the required number of votes, then those candidates having less than a certain proportion of the votes, or all but the two candidates receiving the most votes, are eliminated, and a second round of voting is held.


The two-round system is used around the world for the election of legislative bodies and directly elected presidents.


For example, it is used in French presidential, legislative, and departmental elections.


In Italy, it is used to elect mayors, but also to decide which party or coalition receives a majority bonus in city councils.

The majority bonus system is a form of semi-proportional representation used in some European countries.

Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.


A two-round system is used also to elect the presidents of Afghanistan, Argentina, Austria, Benin, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Liberia, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Timor-Leste, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay and Zimbabwe – see: Table of voting systems by nation.

A voting method is the way in which people cast their votes in an election or referendum.


Historically it was used in the German Empire of 1871–1918, in New Zealand in the 1908 and 1911 elections, and in Israel to elect the Prime Minister in the 1996, 1999 and 2001 elections.

The German Empire was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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