A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
A thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm, lightning storm, or thundershower, is a storm characterized by the presence of lightning and its acoustic effect on the Earth's atmosphere, known as thunder.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then precipitated—that is, become heavy enough to fall under gravity.
A storm is any disturbed state of an environment or astronomical body's atmosphere especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather.
CNN Explains: Tropical cyclones by CNN
Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by names such as hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone.
Mid-Latitude & Tropical Cyclones by Mindset Learn
Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water.
Water is a transparent fluid which forms the world's streams, lakes, oceans and rain and is the major constituent of the fluids of organisms.
They derive their energy through the evaporation of water from the ocean surface, which ultimately recondenses into clouds and rain when moist air rises and cools to saturation.
In meteorology,a cloud is an aerosol comprising a visible mass of minute liquid droplets or frozen crystals, both of which are made of water or various chemicals.
In thermodynamics, the vapor–liquid equilibrium describes the distribution of a chemical species between the gas phase and a liquid phase.
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of evaporation.
This energy source differs from that of mid-latitude cyclonic storms, such as nor'easters and European windstorms, which are fueled primarily by horizontal temperature contrasts.
Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas, which along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth.
Energy development is a field of endeavor focused on making available sufficient primary energy sources and secondary energy forms to meet the needs of society.
In fluid dynamics, the baroclinity of a stratified fluid is a measure of how misaligned the gradient of pressure is from the gradient of density in a fluid.
The strong rotating winds of a tropical cyclone are a result of the conservation of angular momentum imparted by the Earth's rotation as air flows inwards toward the axis of rotation.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
In physics, angular momentum is the rotational analog of linear momentum.
As a result, they rarely form within 5° of the equator.
The Equator usually refers to an imaginary line on the Earth's surface equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole, dividing the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere.
Tropical cyclones are typically between 100 and 2,000 km in diameter.
Tropical refers to the geographical origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively over tropical seas.
Cyclone refers to their cyclonic nature, with wind blowing counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
Circular motion can occur in two possible directions.
The opposite direction of circulation is due to the Coriolis effect.
In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.
In addition to strong winds and rain, tropical cyclones are capable of generating high waves, damaging storm surge, and tornadoes.
A storm surge is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems, the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, and the timing of tides.
A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that rotates while in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
Intense tropical cyclones usually produce tornadoes, the majority of those weak, especially upon landfall.
They typically weaken rapidly over land where they are cut off from their primary energy source.
For this reason, coastal regions are particularly vulnerable to damage from a tropical cyclone as compared to inland regions.
Heavy rains, however, can cause significant flooding inland, and storm surges can produce extensive coastal flooding up to 40 kilometres from the coastline.
Though their effects on human populations are often devastating, tropical cyclones can relieve drought conditions.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in its water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
They also carry heat energy away from the tropics and transport it toward temperate latitudes, which may play an important role in modulating regional and global climate.
In physics, heat is energy that spontaneously passes between a system and its surroundings in some way other than through work or the transfer of matter.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of Earth lie between the tropics and the polar regions.