Tortoises are a family, Testudinidae, of land-dwelling reptiles in the order Testudines.

Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines characterised by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.


Tortoises are shielded from predators by a shell.

In an ecosystem, predation is a biological interaction where a predator feeds on its prey.


The top part of the shell is the carapace, the underside is the plastron, and the two are connected by the bridge.

The turtle shell is a highly complicated shield for the ventral and dorsal parts of turtles, tortoises and terrapins, completely enclosing all the vital organs of the turtle and in some cases even the head.

A carapace is a dorsal section of the exoskeleton or shell in a number of animal groups, including arthropods, such as crustaceans and arachnids, as well as vertebrates, such as turtles and tortoises.


The carapace is fused to both the vertebrae and ribcage, and tortoises are unique among vertebrates in that the pectoral and pelvic girdles are inside, rather than outside, the ribcage.

The shoulder girdle or pectoral girdle is the set of bones which connects the arm to the axial skeleton on each side.

The pelvis is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body.


Tortoises can vary in size from a few centimeters to two meters.


They are usually diurnal animals with tendencies to be crepuscular depending on the ambient temperatures.

Diurnality is a plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.

Crepuscular animals are those that are active primarily during twilight.


They are generally reclusive animals.

A recluse is a person who lives in voluntary seclusion from the public and society.

Asymptotic Freedom
Site Map
the National Register of Citizens
Civil and Political Rights
Brett Favre
Jimmy Garoppolo
the Colombian Peace Process