The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper, known from 1821 to 1959 as the Manchester Guardian.
Manchester is a major city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 514,414 as of 2013.
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Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by The Scott Trust Limited.
The Guardian Weekly is a weekly British-based English language newspaper published by the Guardian Media Group and is one of the world's oldest international newspapers.
The Scott Trust Limited is the British company that owns Guardian Media Group and thus The Guardian and The Observer as well as various other media businesses in the UK.
Guardian Media Group plc is a British mass media company owning various media operations including The Guardian and The Observer.
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The Trust was created in 1936 "to secure the financial and editorial independence of The Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of The Guardian free from commercial or political interference."
Editorial independence is the freedom of editors to make decisions without interference from the owners of a publication.
The Scott Trust became a limited company in 2008, with a constitution to maintain the same protections for The Guardian.
Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than to the benefit of an owner or shareholders.
The Guardian is edited by Katharine Viner, who succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015.
Alan Charles Rusbridger is a British journalist, Principal of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford and the former editor-in-chief of The Guardian.
In 2016, The Guardian's print edition had an average daily circulation of roughly 162,000 copies in the country, behind The Daily Telegraph and The Times.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a National British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The newspaper has an online UK edition as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US.
Guardian US is the New York City-based American online presence of the British print newspaper The Guardian.
The newspaper's online edition was the fifth most widely read in the world in October 2014, with over 42.6 million readers.
Its combined print and online editions reach nearly 9 million British readers.
Notable scoops include the 2011 News International phone hacking scandal, in particular the hacking of murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone.
The News International phone-hacking scandal is a controversy involving the defunct News of the World and other British newspapers published by News International, a subsidiary of News Corporation.
The investigation led to the closure of the UK's biggest selling Sunday newspaper, and one of the highest circulation newspapers in the world, the News of the World.
The newspaper also released news of the secret collection of Verizon telephone records held by US President Barack Obama's administration in June 2013, and subsequently revealed the existence of the PRISM surveillance program after it was leaked to the paper by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden.
Edward Joseph Snowden is an American computer professional, former Central Intelligence Agency employee and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency in 2013 without prior authorization.
A whistleblower is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician who is the 44th and current President of the United States.
In 2016, it led the investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing the then British Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
The Panama Papers are 11.5 million leaked documents that detail financial and attorney–client information for more than 214,488 offshore entities.
David William Donald Cameron, PC is a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 2010 to July 2016.
The Guardian has been named Newspaper of the Year four times at the annual British Press Awards, the most recent in 2014 for reporting on government surveillance.
The Press Awards, formerly the British Press Awards, is an annual ceremony that celebrates the best of British journalism.
The paper is still occasionally referred to by its nickname of The Grauniad, given originally for the purported frequency of its typographical errors.
A typographical error is a mistake made in the typing process of printed material.