Tetralogy of Fallot


Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that is present at birth.

A congenital heart defect, also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth.

The pulmonary valve is the semilunar valve of the heart that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and has three cusps.

The heart is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

Tetralogy of fallot (TOF) - repair, causes, symptoms & pathology by Osmosis


Symptoms include episodes of bluish color to the skin.

Tetralogy of fallot | Circulatory System and Disease | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy by khanacademymedicine


When affected babies cry or have a bowel movement, they may develop a "tet spell" where they turn very blue, have difficulty breathing, become limp, and occasionally lose consciousness.

Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.


Other symptoms may include a heart murmur, finger clubbing, and easy tiring upon breastfeeding.

Nail clubbing, also known as digital clubbing, is a deformity of the finger or toe nails associated with a number of diseases, mostly of the heart and lungs.

Heart murmurs are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one of the heart valves that are loud enough to be heard with a stethoscope.

Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.


The cause is typically not known.


Risk factors include a mother who uses alcohol, has diabetes, is over the age of 40, or gets rubella during pregnancy.

Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group is bound to a saturated carbon atom.

Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.


It may also be associated with Down syndrome.

Down syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.


Classically there are four defects:


a ventricular septal defect, a hole between the two ventricles

A ventricular septal defect is a defect in the ventricular septum, the wall dividing the left and right ventricles of the heart.


pulmonary stenosis, narrowing of the exit from the right ventricle

In the heart, a ventricle is one of two large chambers that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.

Pulmonic stenosis, also known as pulmonary stenosis, is a dynamic or fixed obstruction of flow from the right ventricle of the heart to the pulmonary artery.


right ventricular hypertrophy, enlargement of the right ventricle

Right ventricular hypertrophy is a form of ventricular hypertrophy affecting the right ventricle.


an overriding aorta, which allows blood from both ventricles to enter the aorta

The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries.


TOF is typically treated by open heart surgery in the first year of life.

Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons.


Timing of surgery depends on the baby's symptoms and size.


The procedure involves increasing the size of the pulmonary valve and pulmonary arteries and repairing the ventricular septal defect.


In babies who are too small a temporary surgery may be done with plans for a second surgery when the baby is bigger.


Most people who are affected live to be adults.


Long-term problems may include an irregular heart rate and pulmonary regurgitation.

Pulmonary insufficiency is a condition in which the pulmonary valve is incompetent and allows backflow from the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle of the heart during diastole.


TOF occurs in about 1 in 2,000 newborns.


Males and females are affected equally.

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