the Syrian Civil War


The Syrian Civil War is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria in which international interventions have taken place.

When an HTTP client requests a URL that points to a directory structure instead of an actual web page within the directory, the web server will generally serve a default page, which is often referred to as a main or "index" page.

Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

Inside Syria's civil war by CBS News


The war grew out of the unrest of the 2011 Arab Spring and escalated to armed conflict after President Bashar al-Assad's government violently repressed protests calling for his removal.

The Arab Spring was a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests, riots, and civil wars in the Arab world that began on 17 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution, and spread throughout the countries of the Arab League and its surroundings.

The civil uprising prior to the Syrian Civil War was an early stage of protests – with subsequent violent reaction by the Syrian state – lasting from March to 28 July 2011.

Bashar Hafez al-Assad is the current President of Syria, holding the office since 17 July 2000 after winning the 2000 election, where he was the only candidate.

Syria's war: Who is fighting and why by Vox


The war is now being fought among several factions: the Syrian Government, a loose alliance of Syrian Arab rebel groups, the Syrian Democratic Forces, Salafi jihadist groups who often co-operate with the rebels, and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, Islamic State, and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh, is a Salafi jihadist militant group that follows a fundamentalist, Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest, and Syria to the west.

Salafi jihadism or Jihadist-Salafism is a transnational religious-political ideology based on a belief in "physical" jihadism and the Salafi movement of returning to what adherents believe to be true Sunni Islam.


The factions receive substantial support from foreign actors, leading many to label the conflict a proxy war waged by both regional and global powers.

Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War refers to political, military and operational support to parties involved in the ongoing conflict in Syria that began in March 2011, as well as active foreign involvement.

A proxy war is a conflict between two nations where neither country directly engages the other.


Syrian opposition groups formed the Free Syrian Army and seized control of the area surrounding Aleppo and parts of southern Syria.

The Free Syrian Army was a faction in the initial stages of the Syrian Civil War founded on 29 July 2011 by officers of the Syrian Armed Forces who said their goal was to bring down the Assad government and in late 2011 considered the main military defectors group.

Aleppo is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate.

The Syrian Army, officially the Syrian Arab Army, is the land force branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.


Over time, factions of the Syrian opposition split from their original moderate position to pursue an Islamist vision for Syria as al-Nusra Front and ISIL.

Al-Nusra Front or Jabhat al-Nusra, self proclaimed as Jabhat Fateh al-Sham in July 2016, and sometimes called al-Qaeda in Syria or al-Qaeda in the Levant, was a Sunni Islamist militia fighting against Syrian Government forces in the Syrian Civil War, with the aim of establishing an Islamist state in the country.

Islamism, also known as Political Islam, is an Islamic revival movement often characterized by moral conservatism, literalism, and the attempt "to implement Islamic values in all spheres of life."


In the north, Syrian government forces largely withdrew to fight the FSA, allowing the Kurdish YPG to move in and claim de facto autonomy.

The People's Protection Units, also known as the People's Defense Units, is the main armed service of the Federation of Northern Syria – Rojava.

Kurds in Syria refers to people born in or residing in Syria who are of Kurdish origin.


In 2015 the YPG joined forces with Arab, Assyrian, Armenian and some Turkmen groups forming the Syrian Democratic Forces, while most Turkmen groups remained under FSA label.

Assyrian people, or Syriacs, are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the Middle East.

The Armenians in Syria are Syrian citizens of either full or partial Armenian descent.


International organizations have accused the Syrian government, ISIL and other opposition forces of severe human rights violations and of multiple massacres.


The conflict has caused a considerable displacement of population.

Syrian refugees are people that are citizens and permanent residents of Syria who have fled from their country since the onset of the Syrian Civil War in 2011.


On 1 February 2016, a formal start of the UN-mediated Geneva Syria peace talks was announced by the UN but fighting continues unabated.

The Vienna peace talks for Syria, as of 14 November 2015 known as the talks of the International Syria Support Group, are negotiations of foreign powers that began in Vienna, Austria in October 2015 at the level of foreign ministers, to resolve the conflict in Syria, after unsuccessful previous Syrian peace initiatives.

The Geneva peace talks on Syria, also known as Geneva III, are intended peace negotiations between the Syrian government and opposition in Geneva under the auspices of the UN.

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