Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
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It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund.
Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
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At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of over 9.9 million.
The European Union is a politico-economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Sweden consequently has a low population density of 21 inhabitants per square kilometre, with the highest concentration in the southern half of the country.
Approximately 85% of the population lives in urban areas.
Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the GeatsSvear and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen.
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between c. 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
The Geats, sometimes called Goths, were a North Germanic tribe who inhabited Götaland in modern southern Sweden.
Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested.
Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia.
Fennoscandia, Fenno-Scandinavia, or the Fennoscandian Peninsula, is the geographical peninsula of the Nordic region comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula.
The climate is in general very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Today, Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch executes their authorities in accordance with a set constitution, which can include political and constitutional conventions.
A head of state or Chief of State is the highest-ranking position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.
The capital city is Stockholm, which is also the most populous city in the country.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
A capital city is the municipality enjoying primary status in a country, state, province, or other region, usually as its seat of government.
Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
In government, unicameralism is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The Riksdag is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden.
Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister.
Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
In the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century.
The Swedish Empire was a European great power that exercised territorial control over much of the Baltic region during the 17th and early 18th centuries.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The Scandinavian Peninsula is a peninsula in Northern Europe, which generally comprises the mainland of Sweden, the mainland of Norway, the northwestern area of Finland, as well as a narrow area in the west of the Pechengsky District of Russia.
Russia, also officially known as the Russian Federation, is a federal state in Eurasia.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union.
Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs.
The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Sweden's current borders.