Steel is an alloy of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, that is widely used in construction and other applications because of its high tensile strength and low cost.
Ultimate tensile strength, often shortened to tensile strength, ultimate strength, or Ftu within equations, is the capacity of a material or structure to withstand loads tending to elongate, as opposed to compressive strength, which withstands loads tending to reduce size.
An alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe and atomic number 26.
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Steel's base metal is iron, which is able to take on two crystalline forms, body centered cubic and face centered cubic, depending on its temperature.
Making the steel trawler turn white by Dangar Marine
It is the interaction of those allotropes with the alloying elements, primarily carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
In the body-centred cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the centre of each cube, and in the face-centred cubic, there is one at the center of each of the six faces of the cube.
Carbon, other elements, and inclusions within iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that otherwise occur in the crystal lattices of iron atoms.
In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after Auguste Bravais, is an infinite array of discrete points generated by a set of discrete translation operations described in three dimensional space by:
In materials science, a dislocation or Taylor's dislocation is a crystallographic defect or irregularity within a crystal structure.
The carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.1% of its weight.
Varying the amount of alloying elements, their presence in the steel either as solute elements, or as precipitated phases, retards the movement of those dislocations that make iron comparatively ductile and weak, and thus controls its qualities such as the hardness, ductility, and tensile strength of the resulting steel.
Ductility is a measure of a material's ability to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, which may be expressed as percent elongation or percent area reduction from a tensile test.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50, is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table.
Steel's strength compared to pure iron is only possible at the expense of iron's ductility, of which iron has an excess.
Steel was produced in bloomery furnaces for thousands of years, but its extensive use began after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century, with the production of blister steel and then crucible steel.
An ore is a type of rock that contains sufficient minerals with important elements including metals that can be economically extracted from the rock.
Crucible steel is steel made by melting pig iron, iron, and sometimes steel, often along with sand, glass, ashes, and other fluxes, in a crucible.
A crucible is a ceramic or metal container in which metals or other substances may be melted or subjected to very high temperatures.
With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, a new era of mass-produced steel began.
The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel from molten pig iron before the development of the open hearth furnace.
This was followed by Siemens-Martin process and then Gilchrist-Thomas process that refined the quality of steel.
Open hearth furnaces are one of a number of kinds of furnace where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of pig iron to produce steel.
With their introductions, mild steel replaced wrought iron.
Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking, largely replaced earlier methods by further lowering the cost of production and increasing the quality of the product.
Basic oxygen steelmaking, also known as Linz–Donawitz-steelmaking or the oxygen converter process is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbon-rich molten pig iron is made into steel.
Today, steel is one of the most common materials in the world, with more than 1.3 billion tons produced annually.
It is a major component in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons.
A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry.
Modern steel is generally identified by various grades defined by assorted standards organizations.
A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization, or standards setting organization is an organization whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are intended to address the needs of a group of affected adopters.