Sputnik 1 was the first artificial Earth satellite.
Sputnik 1 - Orbiter Space Flight Simulator 2010 by Rseferino Orbiter Filmmaker
The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957.
An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, abbreviated to USSR, was a socialist state on the Eurasian continent that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A low Earth orbit is an orbit around Earth with an altitude between 160 kilometers, and 2,000 kilometers.
Sputnik-1 by babosfilm
It was a 58 cm diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennas to broadcast radio pulses.
It was visible all around the Earth and its radio pulses were detectable.
This surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis and triggered the Space Race, a part of the larger Cold War.
The Sputnik crisis was a period of public fear and anxiety about the perceived technological gap between the United States and Soviet Union caused by the launch of Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite, launched by the Soviet space program.
The Space Race was a 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union and the United States, for supremacy in spaceflight capability.
The launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments.
Tracking and studying Sputnik 1 from Earth provided scientists with valuable information, even though the satellite itself wasn't equipped with sensors.
The density of the upper atmosphere could be deduced from its drag on the orbit, and the propagation of its radio signals gave information about the ionosphere.
Sputnik 1 was launched during the International Geophysical Year from Site No.1/5, at the 5th Tyuratam range, in Kazakh SSR.
Kazakhstan, formally the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic and the Republic of Kazakhstan, also known by its alternative name of Soviet Kazakhstan, was one of the transcontinental constituent republics of the Soviet Union from 1936-1991 in northern Central Asia.
Gagarin's Start is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, used for the Soviet space program and now managed by Roscosmos State Corporation.
The International Geophysical Year was an international scientific project that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958.
The satellite travelled at about 29,000 kilometres per hour, taking 96.2 minutes to complete each orbit.
It transmitted on 20.005 and 40.002 MHz, which were monitored by amateur radio operators throughout the world.
Amateur radio describes the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport, contesting, and emergency communication.
The hertz is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units and is defined as one cycle per second.
The signals continued for 21 days until the transmitter batteries ran out on 26 October 1957.
Sputnik burned up on 4 January 1958 while reentering Earth's atmosphere, after three months, 1440 completed orbits of the Earth, and a distance travelled of about 70 million km.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.