Split is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia.
Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean.
Dalmatia is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia, and Istria.
Split, Croatia: Modern City on Ancient Roots by Rick Steves Europe
It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea, centered on the Roman Palace of the Emperor Diocletian.
Diocletian's Palace is an ancient palace built by the Roman Emperor Diocletian at the turn of the fourth century AD, that today forms about half the old town and city center of Split, in Croatia.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula and the Apennine Mountains from the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges.
Diocletian, born Diocles, was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.
Living In Split Croatia by Goats On The Road
Spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings, Split's greater area includes the neighboring seaside towns as well.
A peninsula is a piece of land extending out into a body of water that is still connected to mainland or a piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but connected to mainland, for example, the upper and lower peninsulas of the state of Michigan, the peninsula of downtown Vancouver, or the Niagara peninsula.
An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is a link to numerous Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula.
Split is one of the oldest cities in the area.
While traditionally considered just over 1,700 years old, counting from the construction of Diocletian's Palace in 305 CE, the city was in fact founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos in the 3rd or 2nd century BCE.
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large.
It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE, when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona: as after the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees.
Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Byzantine vassal, the Republic of Venice, and the Croatian Kingdom, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty.
The Republic of Venice, or traditionally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice, was a state originating from the lagoon communities in the area of Venice, now northeastern Italy.
For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities.
The Late Middle Ages or late medieval period was the period of European history generally comprising the 14th and 15th centuries.
Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory.
Eventually, its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy.
The Habsburg Monarchy or Empire, occasionally also styled as the Danubian Monarchy, is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg until 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on 18 October 1797 by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Philipp von Cobenzl as representatives of the French Republic and the Austrian monarchy, respectively.
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.
In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, and in 1806, it was included directly in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809.
The Illyrian Provinces was a short-lived autonomous province of the Napoleonic French Empire, established in 1809 on the territories along the north and east coasts of the Adriatic Sea, which had been conquered in the War of the Fifth Coalition.
The Kingdom of Italy was a French client state founded in Northern Italy by Napoleon I, fully influenced by revolutionary France, that ended with his defeat and fall.
After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia.
Austria-Hungary, also known by other names and often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867, when the compromise was ratified by the Hungarian parliament.
The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Kingdom of Dalmatia Croatian: Kraljevina Dalmacija German: Königreich Dalmatien; Italian: Regno di Dalmazia was a crown land of the Austrian Empire 1815–1867 and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary 1867–1918.
During World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943.
World War I, also known as the First World War, or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier.
It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia.
The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Federal Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1991 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
In 1991 Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.
The Croatian War of Independence was fought from 1991 to 1995 between Croat forces loyal to the government of Croatia—which had declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia —and the Serb-controlled Yugoslav People's Army and local Serb forces, with the JNA ending its combat operations in Croatia by 1992.