the Spanish–American War


The Spanish–American War was a conflict fought between Spain and the United States in 1898.

The United States of America, commonly referred to as the United States or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

Crucible of Empire: The Spanish American War by HistoryUnshelved


Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of the USS Maine in Havana harbor in Cuba leading to United States intervention in the Cuban War of Independence.

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a unitary sovereign state comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

The Cuban War of Independence was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years' War and the Little War.

Havana Harbor is the port of Havana, the capital of Cuba, and it is the main port in Cuba.

The Spanish-American War by Alfonso Beal


American acquisition of Spain's Pacific possessions led to its involvement in the Philippine Revolution and ultimately in the Philippine–American War.

The Philippine Revolution, also called the Tagalog War by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities.

The Philippine–American War was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899 to July 2, 1902.


Revolts had been occurring for some years in Cuba against Spanish rule.


The U.S. later backed these revolts upon entering the Spanish–American War.


There had been war scares before, as in the Virginius Affair in 1873, but in the late 1890s, U.S. public opinion was agitated by anti-Spanish propaganda led by newspaper publishers such as Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst which used yellow journalism to call for war.

William Randolph Hearst was an American newspaper publisher who built the nation's largest newspaper chain and media company Hearst Communications and whose flamboyant methods of yellow journalism influenced the nation's popular media by emphasizing sensationalism and human interest stories.

Yellow journalism, or the yellow press, is a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers.

The Virginius Affair was a diplomatic dispute that occurred from October 1873 to February 1875 between the United States, the United Kingdom, and Spain, during the Ten Years' War.


The business community across the United States had just recovered from a deep depression and feared that a war would reverse the gains.


It lobbied vigorously against going to war.


The United States Navy armored cruiser Maine had mysteriously sunk in Havana harbor; political pressures from the Democratic Party pushed the administration of Republican President William McKinley into a war that he had wished to avoid.

William McKinley was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 25th President of the United States from March 4, 1897 until his assassination in September 1901, six months into his second term.

The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.


Spain promised time and time again that it would reform, but never delivered.


The United States sent an ultimatum to Spain demanding that it surrender control of Cuba.


First Madrid declared war, and Washington then followed suit.


The main issue was Cuban independence; the ten-week war was fought in both the Caribbean and the Pacific.

The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands, and the surrounding coasts.


U.S. naval power proved decisive, allowing expeditionary forces to disembark in Cuba against a Spanish garrison already facing nationwide Cuban insurgent attacks and further wasted by yellow fever.


Numerically superior Cuban, Philippine, and U.S. forces obtained the surrender of Santiago de Cuba and Manila despite the good performance of some Spanish infantry units and fierce fighting for positions such as San Juan Hill.

Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city of Cuba and capital city of Santiago de Cuba Province in the south-eastern area of the island, some 870 km south-east of the Cuban capital of Havana.

Manila, officially the City of Manila, is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.


Madrid sued for peace with two obsolete Spanish squadrons sunk in Santiago de Cuba and Manila Bay and a third, more modern fleet recalled home to protect the Spanish coasts.


The result was the 1898 Treaty of Paris, negotiated on terms favorable to the U.S. which allowed it temporary control of Cuba and ceded ownership of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine islands.

Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and formerly known as and sometimes called Porto Rico, is the largest insular territory of the United States, and it is located in the northeastern Caribbean Sea.


The cession of the Philippines involved payment of $20 million to Spain by the U.S. to cover infrastructure owned by Spain.

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

The act of cession is the assignment of property to another entity.


The defeat and collapse of the Spanish Empire was a profound shock to Spain's national psyche, and provoked a thorough philosophical and artistic revaluation of Spanish society known as the Generation of '98.

The Generation of '98 was a group of novelists, poets, essayists, and philosophers active in Spain at the time of the Spanish–American War.

The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in the world and became one of the first global empires in world history.


The United States gained several island possessions spanning the globe and a rancorous new debate over the wisdom of expansionism.

In general, expansionism consists of policies of governments and states that involve territorial or economic expansion.

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