Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter.

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It is characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume.

Solids and Liquids by Bozeman Science


Unlike a liquid, a solid object does not flow to take on the shape of its container, nor does it expand to fill the entire volume available to it like a gas does.

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a constant volume independent of pressure.


The atoms in a solid are tightly bound to each other, either in a regular geometric lattice or irregularly.

In the mathematics of matroids and lattices, a geometric lattice is a finite atomistic semimodular lattice, and a matroid lattice is an atomistic semimodular lattice without the assumptions of finiteness.

Ice is water frozen into a solid state.


The branch of physics that deals with solids is called solid-state physics, and is the main branch of condensed matter physics.

Physics is the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force.

Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.


Materials science is primarily concerned with the physical and chemical properties of solids.

The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.

The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.


Solid-state chemistry is especially concerned with the synthesis of novel materials, as well as the science of identification and chemical composition.

Solid-state chemistry, also sometimes referred as materials chemistry, is the study of the synthesis, structure, and properties of solid phase materials, particularly, but not necessarily exclusively of, non-molecular solids.

Chemical composition, also known as chemical makeup or simply, composition, is a concept in chemistry that has different, but similar, meanings if referred to a single pure substance or a mixture.

An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.

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