Computer software, or simply software, is that part of a computer system that consists of encoded information or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.
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The term "software" was first proposed by Alan Turing and used in this sense by John W. Tukey in 1957.
Alan Mathison Turing was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher and theoretical biologist.
John Wilder Tukey was an American mathematician best known for development of the FFT algorithm and box plot.
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In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all information processed by computer systems, programs and data.
A software engineer is a person who applies the principles of software engineering to the design, development, maintenance, testing, and evaluation of the software that make computers or other devices containing software work.
Software engineering is the application of engineering to the design, development, implementation, testing and maintenance of software in a systematic method.
Computer science is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers.
Computer software includes computer programs, libraries and related non-executable data, such as online documentation or digital media.
In computing, executable code or an executable file or executable program, sometimes simply an executable, causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful.
A computer program is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer.
Digital media are any media that are encoded in machine-readable formats.
Computer hardware and software require each other and neither can be realistically used on its own.
At the lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor—typically a central processing unit.
A central processing unit is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and inputO circuitry.
A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state.
For example, an instruction may change the value stored in a particular storage location in the computer—an effect that is not directly observable to the user.
An instruction may also cause something to appear on a display of the computer system—a state change which should be visible to the user.
The processor carries out the instructions in the order they are provided, unless it is instructed to "jump" to a different instruction, or interrupted.
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry.
The majority of software is written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for programmers, meaning closer to a natural language.
In neuropsychology, linguistics and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
A programmer, computer programmer, developer, dev, coder, or software engineer is a person who writes computer software.
High-level languages are translated into machine language using a compiler or an interpreter or a combination of the two.
Software may also be written in a low-level assembly language, essentially, a vaguely mnemonic representation of a machine language using a natural language alphabet, which is translated into machine language using an assembler.
An assembly language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language for a computer, or other programmable device, in which there is a very strong correspondence between the language and the architecture's machine code instructions.
A mnemonic device, or memory device, is any learning technique that aids information retention in the human memory.