the Social Democratic Party of Germany


The Social Democratic Party of Germany is a social-democratic, political party in Germany.

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe.


It is one of the two major contemporary political parties in Germany along with the Christian Democratic Union of Germany.


Saskia Esken and Norbert Walter-Borjans have been the party's leaders since the 2019 leadership election.

Saskia Esken is a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany who has been serving as co-leader of the party since being elected as co-leader on December 2019.


The SPD is the second-largest party in the Bundestag with 152 out of 709 seats, having won 20.5% of votes cast at the 2017 federal election.


The party is a junior member of the federal government along with the CDU/CSU; this government was first formed after the 2013 election and renewed in 2017.

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The SPD is a member of 11 of the 16 state governments of Germany, and is a leading partner in seven of them.


The SPD is a member of the Party of European Socialists and sits with the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats group in the European Parliament.

The Progressive Alliance is a political international of social-democratic and progressive political parties and organisations founded on 22 May 2013 in Leipzig, Germany.


With 16 MEPs, it is the third largest party in the group.

A Member of the European Parliament is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.


The SPD was a founding member of the Socialist International, but left in 2013 after criticising its acceptance of authoritarian parties.

The Socialist International is a worldwide association of political parties, most of which seek to establish democratic socialism.


The party subsequently founded the Progressive Alliance, which was joined by numerous other parties around the world.


Previously, the SPD was a founding member of both the Second International and the Labour and Socialist International.

The Second International was an organisation of socialist and labour parties, formed on 14 July 1889 at a Paris meeting in which delegations from twenty countries participated.


Established in 1863, the SPD is by far the oldest existing political party represented in the Bundestag, and was one of the first Marxist-influenced parties in the world.

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and a dialectical view of social transformation.


From the 1890s through the early 20th century, the SPD was Europe's largest Marxist party and was consistently the most popular party in Germany.


During the First World War, the party split between a pro-war mainstream and the anti-war Independent Social Democratic Party, of which some members went on to form the Communist Party of Germany.

The Communist Party of Germany was a major political party in the Weimar Republic between 1918 and 1933, an underground resistance movement in Nazi Germany, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period until it was banned in 1956.

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.


The SPD played a leading role in the German Revolution of 1918–1919, and was chiefly responsible for the foundation of the Weimar Republic.

The German Revolution or November Revolution was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic.


SPD politician Friedrich Ebert served as the first President of Germany, and the SPD was the strongest party until 1932.

Friedrich Ebert was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany and the first President of Germany from 1919 until his death in office in 1925.


After the rise of the Nazi Party to power, the SPD was banned in 1933, and operated in exile as the Sopade.

The National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and practised the ideology of Nazism.


After the Second World War, the party was re-established.

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.


In East Germany, it merged with the Communist Party to form the Socialist Unity Party of Germany.

The Socialist Unity Party of Germany, often known in English as the East German Communist Party, was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from the country's foundation in October 1949 until its dissolution after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic, was a state that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.


In West Germany, the SPD became one of two major parties alongside the CDUCSU from 1966 to 1969, 2005 to 2009, and again since 2013.

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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