Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.
Yorkshire, formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.
A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district in England, and is a subdivision of a metropolitan county.
A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries.
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Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city.
The River Sheaf in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England, flows northwards, past Dore, through Abbeydale and north of Heeley.
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With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its largely industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base.
The population of the City of Sheffield is 563,749 and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group.
The Core Cities Group is a self-selected and self-financed collaborative advocacy group of large regional cities in the United Kingdom outside Greater London.
In the 19th century, Sheffield gained an international reputation for steel production.
Steel is an alloy of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, that is widely used in construction and other applications because of its high tensile strength and low cost.
Known as the Steel City, many innovations were developed locally, including crucible and stainless steel, fuelling an almost tenfold increase in the population in the Industrial Revolution.
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable, is a steel alloy, with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass and a maximum of 1.2% carbon by mass.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Steel City is a common nickname for many cities that were once known for their production of large amounts of steel.
Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893.
A city charter or town charter is a legal document establishing a municipality such as a city or town.
International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, coinciding with the collapse of coal mining in the area.
The 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield along with other British cities.
Sheffield's gross value added has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007.
In economics, gross value added is the measure of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry or sector of an economy.
The economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber.
Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The Humber is a large tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England.
The city is in the eastern foothills of the Pennines, and the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin and the Sheaf.
The Pennines, also known as the Pennine Chain or Pennine Hills, are a range of mountains and hills in England separating North West England from Yorkshire and North East England.
61% of Sheffield's entire area is green space, and a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park.
There are more than 250 parks, woodlands and gardens in the city, with an often quoted estimated 2 million trees, and claims of Sheffield having the highest ratio of trees to people of any city in Europe.
Woodland is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade.
Roadside trees however are currently being replaced by the council under a controversial 25 year Private finance initiative scheme which commenced in 2012.
The private finance initiative is a way of creating "public–private partnerships" where private firms are contracted to complete and manage public projects.
The city has a long sporting heritage, and is home to the world's oldest football club, Sheffield F.C. Games between the two professional clubs, Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday, are known as the Steel City derby.
The Steel City Derby is a local derby that takes place between Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday, the two professional football league teams based in the city of Sheffield, England.
Sheffield Football Club is an English football club from Sheffield, South Yorkshire, although now based in Dronfield, Derbyshire.