Severe acute respiratory syndrome is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin that surfaced in the early 2000s caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, the first-identified strain of the SARS coronavirus species severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus.
Respiratory diseases, or lung diseases, are pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange difficult in air-breathing animals.
A zoonosis is an infectious disease caused by a pathogen that has jumped from non-human animals to humans.
Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds.
SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) - Nursing Study Buddy Video Library by NursingStudyBuddy
The syndrome caused the 2002–2004 SARS outbreak.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ) Etiology, Clinical features, Diagnosis, and Treatment by Dr.G.Bhanu Prakash - Usmle , FMGE and Neet PG
In late 2017, Chinese scientists traced the virus through the intermediary of civets to cave-dwelling horseshoe bats in Yunnan province.
Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera; with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight.
A civet is a small, lean, mostly nocturnal mammal native to tropical Asia and Africa, especially the tropical forests.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
No cases of the first SARS-CoV have been reported worldwide since 2004.
In 2019, a related virus strain, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, was discovered.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, previously known by the provisional name 2019 novel coronavirus, is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus.
This new strain causes COVID-19, a disease which brought about the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.
Symptoms are flu-like symptoms and may include fever, muscle pain, lethargy, cough, sore throat, and other nonspecific symptoms.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
A symptom is a departure from normal function or feeling which is apparent to a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
In medicine, myalgia, also known as muscle pain or muscle ache, is a symptom that presents with a large array of diseases.
The only symptom common to all patients appears to be a fever above 38 °C. SARS may eventually lead to shortness of breath and pneumonia; either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is a feeling like one cannot breathe well enough.
The average incubation period for SARS is 4–6 days, although rarely it could be as short as 1 day or as long as 14 days.
Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.
The primary route of transmission for SARS-CoV is contact of the mucous membranes with respiratory droplets or fomites.
A respiratory droplet is a particle consisting mostly of water that is large enough to fall to the ground rapidly after being produced, often defined as having a diameter greater than 5 μm.
A fomite or fomes is any inanimate object that, when contaminated with or exposed to infectious agents, can transfer disease to a new host.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
While diarrhea is common in people with SARS, the fecal–oral route does not appear to be a common mode of transmission.
The fecal–oral route describes a particular route of transmission of a disease wherein pathogens in fecal particles pass from one person to the mouth of another person.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
The basic reproduction number of SARS-CoV, R0, ranges from 2 to 4 depending on different analyses.
In epidemiology, the basic reproduction number of an infection can be thought of as the expected number of cases directly generated by one case in a population where all individuals are susceptible to infection.
Control measures introduced in April 2003 reduced the R to 0.4.
SARS-CoV may be suspected in a patient who has:
Any of the symptoms, including a fever of 38 °C or higher, and
Contact with someone with a diagnosis of SARS within the last 10 days or
Travel to any of the regions identified by the World Health Organization as areas with recent local transmission of SARS.
The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
For a case to be considered probable, a chest X-ray must be positive for atypical pneumonia or respiratory distress syndrome.
Atypical pneumonia, also known as walking pneumonia, is the type of pneumonia not caused by one of the pathogens most commonly associated with the disease.
The WHO has added the category of "laboratory confirmed SARS" for patients who would otherwise be considered "probable" but who have not yet had a positive chest X-ray changes, but have tested positive for SARS based on one of the approved tests.
The appearance of SARS-CoV in chest X-rays is not always uniform but generally appears as an abnormality with patchy infiltrates.