Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe.

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the north-west coast of continental Europe.

A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.

Scotland's Islands and Highlands by Rick Steves' Europe


It shares a border with England to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the south-west.

The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres.

â—„Scotland - Rome's Final Frontierâ–º (DOCUMENTARY) by glasgow1234


In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.

The Hebrides comprise a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.


Edinburgh, the country's capital and second-largest city, was the hub of the Scottish Enlightenment of the 18th century, which transformed Scotland into one of the commercial, intellectual, and industrial powerhouses of Europe.

The Scottish Enlightenment was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.

A burgh was an autonomous municipal corporation in Scotland and Northern England, usually a town, or toun in Scots.

Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 local government council areas.


Glasgow, Scotland's largest city, was once one of the world's leading industrial cities and now lies at the centre of the Greater Glasgow conurbation.

Greater Glasgow is an urban settlement in Scotland consisting of all localities which are physically attached to the city of Glasgow, forming with it a single contiguous urban area.


Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee.

Aberdeen is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and 229,800 for the local authority area.

Dundee, officially the City of Dundee, is Scotland's fourth-largest city and the 51st-most-populous built-up area in the United Kingdom.


Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union.


This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europe's oil capital.


The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707.

The Kingdom of Scotland was a state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843, which joined with the Kingdom of England to form a unified Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707.

The Early Middle Ages was the period of European history lasting from the roughly the 6th century to the 10th century.

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.


By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms.

{{Infobox | bodyclass = vcard | titleclass = fn org | title = Ireland


Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain..

The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

A political union is a type of state which is composed of or created out of smaller states.


The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England..


The monarchy of the United Kingdom continues to use a variety of styles, titles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to pre-union Scotland, including: the Royal Standard of Scotland, the Royal coat of arms used in Scotland together with its associated Royal Standard, royal titles including that of Duke of Rothesay, certain Great Officers of State, the chivalric Order of the Thistle, and, since 1999, reinstating a former ceremonial role for the Crown of Scotland.

The Royal Banner of the Royal Arms of Scotland, also known as the Royal Banner of Scotland, or more commonly the Lion Rampant of Scotland, and historically as the Royal Standard of Scotland, or Banner of the King of Scots, is the Royal Banner of Scotland, and historically, the Royal Standard of the Kingdom of Scotland.

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.

Duke of Rothesay is a dynastic title of the heir apparent to the British throne, currently Prince Charles.


Scotland's legal system has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, and Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in public and private law.

England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, which form the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follow a single legal system, known as English law.

Northern Ireland is a top-level constituent unit of the United Kingdom in the northeast of Ireland.


The continued existence of legal, educational, religious and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union.


Following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy.

Domestic policy are administrative decisions that are directly related to all issues and activity within a nation's borders.

In government, unicameralism is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.


The Scottish National Party,, which supports Scottish independence, won an overall majority in the 2011 Scottish Parliament general election and legislated for an independence referendum which was held on 18 September 2014; a majority of 55% to 45% rejected independence on an 85% voter turnout.

Scottish independence is a political aim of various political parties, advocacy groups, and individuals in Scotland for the country to become an independent sovereign state.

Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election.


The UK Conservative Party won an overall majority in the 2015 UK general election and legislated for a referendum on the UK's membership of the European Union which was held on 23 June 2016; within Scotland, a majority of 62% to 38% rejected withdrawal from the EU on a 67% voter turnout.


Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.


Scotland is also a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly.

The British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly is a deliberative body consisting of members elected to the parliaments of the United Kingdom, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and the British crown dependencies.

The British–Irish Council is an intergovernmental organisation which aims to improve collaboration between its members in a number of areas including transport, the environment, and energy.

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