Rudolph William Louis "Rudy" Giuliani is an American lawyer, businessman, former politician, and public speaker from New York.
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Politically a Democrat, then an Independent in the 1970s, and a Republican since the 1980s, Giuliani was the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York during the 1980s.
The U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York is the chief federal law enforcement officer in eight New York counties: New York, Bronx, Westchester, Putnam, Rockland, Orange, Dutchess, and Sullivan.
United States Attorneys represent the United States federal government in United States district court and United States court of appeals.
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Giuliani prosecuted pivotal cases against the American Mafia, and against corrupt corporate financiers.
The American Mafia, often referred to in the United States as the Italian Mafia or Italian Mob, commonly shortened to the Mafia or Mob, and also known as the Italian-American Mafia, La Cosa Nostra, or the American Cosa Nostra, is an extremely powerful, influential, highly organized Italian-American criminal society.
During his first term as mayor of New York City, Giuliani hired a new police commissioner, William Bratton, who applied the broken windows theory of urban decay, which holds that minor disorders and violations create a permissive atmosphere that leads to further and more serious crimes that can threaten the safety of a city.
The broken windows theory is a criminological theory of the norm-setting and signaling effect of urban disorder and vandalism on additional crime and anti-social behavior.
William Joseph "Bill" Bratton CBE is an American law enforcement officer, businessman, and former New York City Police Commissioner, 2014–2016 and 1994–1996.
Urban decay is the process whereby a previously functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude.
Within several years, Giuliani was widely credited for major improvements in the city's quality of life, and in lowering the rate of violent crimes.
While still Mayor, Giuliani ran for the U.S. Senate in 2000; however, he withdrew from the race upon learning of his prostate cancer diagnosis.
The United States Senate is a legislative chamber in the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the House of Representatives makes up the U.S. Congress.
Prostate cancer, also known as carcinoma of the prostate, is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.
Giuliani was named Time magazine's Person of the Year for 2001, and was given an honorary knighthood in 2002 by the United Kingdom's Queen Elizabeth II.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity.
Elizabeth II is, and has been since her accession in 1952, Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, and Head of the Commonwealth.
In 2002, Giuliani founded Giuliani Partners, acquired and later sold Giuliani Capital Advisors, and joined a Texas firm while opening a Manhattan office for the firm renamed Bracewell & Giuliani.
Giuliani Partners LLC is a management consulting and security consulting business founded by former New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani in January 2002.
Bracewell LLP is an international law firm based in Houston, Texas, that began in 1945.
Giuliani sought the Republican Party's 2008 presidential nomination, and was considered the early front runner in the race, before withdrawing from the race to endorse the eventual nominee, John McCain.
John Sidney McCain III is the senior United States Senator from Arizona.
Giuliani was considered a potential candidate for New York Governor in 2010 and for the Republican presidential nomination in 2012.
However, Giuliani declined all races, and instead remained in the business sector.