Rome is a city and special comune in Italy.
The comune is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.
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Rome is the capital of Italy and of the Lazio region.
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With 2.9 million residents in 1,285 km2, it is also the country's largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits.
The European Union is a politico-economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of Tiber river.
The Tiber is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing 406 kilometres through Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the river Aniene, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino.
The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula is the central and the smallest of the three large peninsulas of Southern Europe.
The Vatican City is an independent country geographically located within the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.
Vatican City, officially Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City, is a country located within the city of Rome.
While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe.
The founding of Rome can be investigated through archaeology, but traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth.
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
A myth is any traditional story consisting of events that are ostensibly historical, explaining the origins of a cultural practice or natural phenomenon.
The city's early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and Sabines.
The Sabines were an Italic tribe which lived in the central Apennines of ancient Italy, also inhabiting Latium north of the Anio before the founding of Rome.
Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latins referred originally to an Italic tribe in ancient central Italy from Latium.
Eventually, the city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, and is regarded as one of the birthplaces of Western civilisation and by some as the first ever metropolis.
A metropolis is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications.
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Roman Republic was the era of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
It is referred to as "Roma Aeterna" and "Caput Mundi", two central notions in ancient Roman culture.
Roma Caput Mundi is a Latin phrase taken to mean "Rome capital of the world".
After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome slowly fell under the political control of the Papacy, which had settled in the city since the 1st century AD, until in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church, were territories in the Italian Peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
The pope, also known as the pontiff, is the Bishop of Rome, and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Beginning with the Renaissance, almost all the popes since Nicholas V pursued coherently along four hundred years an architectonic and urbanistic programme aimed to make of the city the world's artistic and cultural centre.
The Renaissance was a period in European history, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.
An arch is a curved structure that spans a space and may or may not support weight above it.
Pope Nicholas V, born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from 6 March 1447 until his death.
Due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and then the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
The Italian Renaissance was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
The Baroque is a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theatre, and music.
Neoclassicism is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome.
Famous artists, painters, sculptors and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Italy was a state which existed from 1861, when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy, until 1946, when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic.
Rome has the status of a global city.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system.
Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy.
Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
A World Heritage Site is a landmark which has been officially recognized by the United Nations, specifically by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris.
Monuments and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the world's most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year.
The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy.