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20 Facts About Roman Britain

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1

Roman Britain was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.

The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the north-west coast of continental Europe.

Gods of Roman Britain by Survive the Jive

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2

It comprised almost the whole of England and Wales and, for a short period, southern Scotland.

Ten Minute English and British History #02 - Late Roman Britain by History Matters

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3

Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55 and 54 BC as part of his Gallic Wars.

The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.

Gaius Julius Caesar, known as Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, general, and notable author of Latin prose.

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4

According to Caesar, the Britons had been overrun or culturally assimilated by other Celtic tribes during the British Iron Age and had been aiding Caesar's enemies.

The British Iron Age is a conventional name used in the archaeology of Great Britain, referring to the prehistoric and protohistoric phases of the Iron Age culture of the main island and the smaller islands, typically excluding prehistoric Ireland, which had an independent Iron Age culture of its own.

The Iron Age is an archaeological era, referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World when the dominant toolmaking material was iron.

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5

He received tribute, installed the friendly king Mandubracius over the Trinovantes, and returned to Gaul.

Gaul was a historical region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, and parts of Northern Italy, Netherlands, and Germany, particularly the west bank of the Rhine.

Mandubracius or Mandubratius was a king of the Trinovantes of south-eastern Britain in the 1st century BC.

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6

Planned invasions under Augustus were called off in 34, 27, and 25 BC.

Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Roman emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.

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7

In 40 AD, Caligula assembled 200,000 men at the Channel on the continent, only to have them gather seashells according to Suetonius, perhaps as a symbolic gesture to proclaim Caligula's victory over the sea.

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius, was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.

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8

Three years later, Claudius directed four legions to invade Britain and restore the exiled king Verica over the Atrebates.

The Atrebates were a Belgic tribe of Gaul and Britain before the Roman conquests.

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9

The Romans defeated the Catuvellauni, and then organized their conquests as the Province of Britain.

The Catuvellauni were a Celtic tribe or state of southeastern Britain before the Roman conquest, attested by inscriptions into the 4th century.

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10

By the year 47, the Romans held the lands southeast of the Fosse Way.

The Fosse Way was a Roman road in England that linked Exeter in South West England to Lincoln in Lincolnshire, via Ilchester, Bath, Cirencester and Leicester.

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11

Control over Wales was delayed by reverses and the effects of Boudica's uprising, but the Romans expanded steadily northward.

Boudica or Boudicca, also known as Boadicea or Boudicea, and in Welsh as Buddug, was a queen of the British Celtic Iceni tribe who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire in AD 60 or 61.

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12

The conquest of Britain continued under command of Gnaeus Julius Agricola, who expanded the Roman Empire as far as Caledonia.

Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Romans to the land north of their province of Britannia, beyond the frontier of their empire, roughly corresponding to modern-day Scotland.

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13

In the summer of 84, Agricola faced the armies of the Caledonians, led by Calgacus, at the Battle of Mons Graupius.

According to Tacitus, Calgacus was a chieftain of the Caledonian Confederacy who fought the Roman army of Gnaeus Julius Agricola at the Battle of Mons Graupius in northern Scotland in AD 83 or 84.

The Caledonians or the Caledonian Confederacy were a Brittonic-speaking tribal confederacy in what is now Scotland during the Iron Age and Roman eras.

The Battle of Mons Graupius was, according to Tacitus, a Roman military victory in what is now Scotland, taking place in AD 83 or, less probably, 84.

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Battle casualties were estimated by Tacitus to be around the 10,000's on the Caledonian side and about 360 on the Roman side.

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The bloodbath at Mons Graupius concluded the forty-year conquest of Britain, a period that saw between 100,000 and 250,000 Britons killed.

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In the context of pre-industrial warfare and of a total population of Britain of c.2 million, these are very high figures.

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17

Under the 2nd-century emperors Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, two walls were built to defend the Roman province from the Caledonians, whose realms in the Scottish Highlands were never controlled.

The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar.

A province is almost always an administrative division, within a country or state.

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18

Around 197, the Severan Reforms divided Britain into two provinces: Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior.

Britannia Superior was one of the provinces of Roman Britain created around AD 197 by Emperor Septimius Severus immediately after winning a civil war against Clodius Albinus, a war fought to determine who would be the next emperor.

Britannia has been used in several different senses, but is best known as a national personification of the United Kingdom.

Britannia Inferior was a new province carved out of Roman Britain around AD 197 during the reforms of Septimius Severus.

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19

During the Diocletian Reforms, at the end of the 3rd century, Britannia was divided into four provinces under the direction of a vicarius, who administered the Diocese of the Britains.

Diocletian, born Diocles, was a Roman emperor from 284 to 305.

Vicarius is a Latin word, meaning substitute or deputy.

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A fifth province, Valentia, is attested in the later 4th century.

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