The Rock of Gibraltar is a monolithic limestone promontory located in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, off the southwestern tip of Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
A monolith is a geological feature consisting of a single massive stone or rock, such as some mountains, or a single large piece of rock placed as, or within, a monument or building.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
A promontory is a raised mass of land that projects into a lowland or lower body of water.
Gibraltar: The Rock by Rick Steves Europe
The Rock is Crown property of the United Kingdom, and borders Spain.
Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a sovereign state largely located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe, with archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, and several small territories on and near the North African coast.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Most of the Rock's upper area is covered by a nature reserve, which is home to around 300 Barbary macaques.
A nature reserve is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
The Barbary macaque, Barbary ape, or magot is a species of macaque unique for its distribution outside Asia and for its vestigial tail.
These macaques, as well as a labyrinthine network of tunnels, attract a large number of tourists each year.
The Rock of Gibraltar was one of the Pillars of Hercules and was known to the Romans as Mons Calpe, the other pillar being Mons Abyla or Jebel Musa on the African side of the Strait.
The Pillars of Hercules was the phrase that was applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar.
In ancient times, the two points marked the limit to the known world, a myth originally fostered by the Greeks and the Phoenicians.
Phoenicia was an ancient Semitic thalassocratic civilization situated on the East Mediterranean coastal part of the Fertile Crescent, on the coastline of what is now Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Gaza, Syria and south west Turkey, though some colonies later reached the Western Mediterranean and even the Atlantic Ocean, the most famous being Carthage.
The Greeks or Hellenes are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Turkey, Sicily, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.
Gibraltar is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea and has no contact with the Atlantic Ocean.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres, slightly more than half that of the Pacific Ocean.