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20 Facts About Richard Nixon

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Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States from 1969 until 1974, when he became the only U.S. president to resign from office.

A president is the leader of a country or a division or part of a country, typically a republic, a democracy, or a dictatorship.

The President of the United States is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.

Richard Nixon on Face the Nation 1968 by Richard Nixon Foundation

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He had previously served as a U.S. Representative and Senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961 under the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was an American politician and general who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961.

The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest position in the executive branch of the United States, after the President.

California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area.

Richard Nixon on "Inside Washington" by Richard Nixon Foundation

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3

Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California.

Yorba Linda is a suburban city in Orange County, California, approximately 37 miles southeast of Downtown Los Angeles.

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After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law.

Duke University School of Law is the law school and a constituent academic unit of Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States.

Duke University is a private research university located in Durham, North Carolina, United States.

Whittier College is a private liberal arts college in Whittier, California, United States.

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5

He and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government.

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He subsequently served on active duty in the U.S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950.

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier.

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7

His pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist, and elevated him to national prominence.

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He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election.

A running mate is a person running together with another person on a joint ticket during an election.

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9

Nixon served for eight years as vice president.

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10

He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, and lost a race for Governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962.

The Governor of California is the chief executive of the California state government, commander-in-chief of the California National Guard and the California State Military Reserve, whose responsibilities also include making annual State of the State addresses to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, and ensuring that state laws are enforced.

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy, commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.

Edmund Gerald "Pat" Brown Sr. was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 32nd Governor of California from 1959 to 1967.

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In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected by defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey.

Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. was an American politician who served as the 38th Vice President of the United States under President Lyndon B. Johnson from 1965 to 1969.

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12

Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, and ended the military draft.

The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and known in Vietnam as Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was a war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

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13

Nixon's visit to the People's Republic of China in 1972 opened diplomatic relations between the two nations, and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year.

The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty was a treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile systems used in defending areas against ballistic missile-delivered nuclear weapons.

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, abbreviated to USSR, was a socialist state on the Eurasian continent that existed from 1922 to 1991.

Détente is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation.

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14

His administration generally transferred power from Washington D.C. to the states.

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15

He imposed wage and price controls for a period of ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools and established the Environmental Protection Agency.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency is an agency of the Federal government of the United States which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.

Desegregation is the process of ending the separation of two groups usually referring to races.

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16

Nixon also presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race.

Apollo 11 was the first spaceflight that landed humans on the Moon.

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He was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U.S. history in 1972, when he defeated George McGovern.

George Stanley McGovern was an American historian, author, U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator, and the Democratic Party presidential nominee in the 1972 presidential election.

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18

The year 1973 saw an Arab oil embargo, gasoline rationing, and a continuing series of revelations about the Watergate scandal.

Watergate was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s, following a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. in 1972 and President Richard Nixon's administration's attempted cover-up of its involvement.

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The scandal escalated, costing Nixon much of his political support, and on August 9, 1974, he resigned in the face of almost certain impeachment and removal from office.

Impeachment is a process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment.

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20

After his resignation, he was issued a pardon by his successor, Gerald Ford.

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