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20 Facts About the Republic of Ireland

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Ireland, also described as the Republic of Ireland, is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland.

The euro is the official currency of the eurozone, which consists of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain.

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralised government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

{{Infobox | bodyclass = vcard | titleclass = fn org | title = Ireland

Why Ireland split into the Republic of Ireland & Northern ... by WonderWhy

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The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the eastern part of the island, and whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's 4.75 million inhabitants.

WNT vs. Republic of Ireland: Highlights - Dec. 1, 2012 by U.S. Soccer

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The state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

Northern Ireland is a top-level constituent unit of the United Kingdom in the northeast of Ireland.

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It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, Saint George's Channel to the south-east and the Irish Sea to the east.

The Celtic Sea is the area of the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Ireland bounded to the east by Saint George's Channel; other limits include the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay, as well as adjacent portions of Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and Brittany.

The Celts were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about 106,460,000 square kilometres, slightly more than half that of the Pacific Ocean.

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It is a unitary, parliamentary republic.

A parliamentary republic is a type of republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature.

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The legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, and an elected President who serves as the largely ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties.

A head of state or Chief of State is the highest-ranking position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.

Dáil Éireann is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas, which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann.

A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.

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The head of government is the Taoiseach, who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President, and appoints other government ministers.

Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.

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The state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty.

The Anglo-Irish Treaty, commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and representatives of the Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence.

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It had the status of dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and effectively became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.

Dominions were semi-independent polities that were under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.

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It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948.

The Republic of Ireland Act 1948 is an Act of the Oireachtas which declared that Ireland may be officially described as the Republic of Ireland, and vested in the President of Ireland the power to exercise the executive authority of the state in its external relations, on the advice of the Government of Ireland.

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Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955.

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It joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973.

The European Economic Community was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

The European Union is a politico-economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles".

The Troubles is the common name for the ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century.

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Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement.

The North/South Ministerial Council is a body established under the Good Friday Agreement to co-ordinate activity and exercise certain governmental powers across the whole island of Ireland.

The Good Friday Agreement or Belfast Agreement was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.

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Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, and as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015.

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After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.

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The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period.

"Celtic Tiger" is a term referring to the economy of the Republic of Ireland from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s, a period of rapid real economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment.

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This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash.

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However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again quickly ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally.

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For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index.

The Human Development Index is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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