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Reconstruction Era

1

The term Reconstruction Era, in the context of the history of the United States, has two senses: the first covers the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the American Civil War ; the second sense focuses on the transformation of the Southern United States from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Congress, with the reconstruction of state and society.

The United States of America, commonly referred to as the United States or America, is a federal republic composed of ‹See TfD›50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

The date of the start of the history of the United States is a subject of debate among historians.

Reconstruction The Second Civil War {1 of 2} (Full ... by Documentary Daily

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Three visions of Civil War memory appeared during Reconstruction: The reconciliationist vision, which was rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war had brought, the white supremacist vision, which included terror and violence, as well as locked arms and held hands, and the emancipationist vision, bestowed in the memory of African Americans achieving their own freedom, citizenship and Constitutional equality.

African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa.

Background of the Reconstruction Period (clip) by phoenixfilmandvideo

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From 1863 to 1865, Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson both took moderate positions designed to bring the South back to normal as quickly as possible, while the Radical Republicans used Congress to block any moderate approaches, impose harsh terms, and upgrade the rights of the freedmen.

The Radical Republicans were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party of the United States from around 1854 until the end of Reconstruction in 1877.

Abraham Lincoln was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.

A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.

4

Johnson followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates much like Lincoln's.

5

Lincoln's last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the enfranchisement of all freedmen, whereas Johnson was opposed to this.

6

Johnson's interpretations of Lincoln's policies prevailed until the Congressional elections of 1866 in the North, which enabled the Radicals to take control of policy, remove former Confederates from power, and enfranchise the freedmen.

7

A Republican coalition came to power in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U.S. Army and the Freedmen's Bureau.

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, usually referred to as simply the Freedmen's Bureau, was a U.S. federal government agency established in 1865 to aid freedmen in the South during the Reconstruction era of the United States, which attempted to change society in the former Confederacy.

The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States Armed Forces and performs land-based military operations.

8

The Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, and set up schools and churches for them.

9

Thousands of Northerners came South as missionaries, teachers, businessmen, and politicians; hostile elements called them "Carpetbaggers".

In United States history, a carpetbagger was a Northerner who moved to the South after the American Civil War, during the Reconstruction era.

10

Rebuilding the rundown railroad system was a major strategy, but it collapsed when a nationwide depression struck the economy.

11

The Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnson's opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges but the action failed by one vote in the Senate.

12

In early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature.

13

The first bill extended the life of the bureau, originally established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens who were to enjoy equality before the law.

14

After Johnson vetoed the bills–causing a permanent rupture in his relationship with Congress that would culminate in his impeachment in 1868–Congress overrode his veto, making the Civil Rights Act the first major bill in the history of the United States to become law through an override of a presidential veto.

15

President Ulysses S. Grant supported Radical Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South through the use of the Enforcement Acts passed by Congress.

Federal intervention is an attribution of the federal government of Argentina, by which it takes control of a province in certain extreme cases.

16

Grant used the Enforcement Acts to effectively combat the Ku Klux Klan, which was essentially wiped out, but was unable to resolve the escalating tensions inside the Republican party between the northerners, on the one hand, and those Republicans originally hailing from the South, on the other.

The Ku Klux Klan, or simply "the Klan", is the name of three distinct movements in the United States that have advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, anti-immigration, and, especially in later iterations, Nordicism, anti-Catholicism, and antisemitism, historically expressed through terrorism aimed at groups or individuals whom they opposed.

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Meanwhile, self-styled Conservatives strongly opposed Republican rule.

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They alleged widespread corruption by the Carpetbaggers, excessive state spending and ruinous taxes.

19

The opposition violently counterattacked and regained power in each "redeemed" Southern state by 1877.

20

Meanwhile, public support for Reconstruction policies faded in the North, as voters decided the Civil War was over and slavery was dead.

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