Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is a Turkish politician who has been the President of Turkey since 2014.
Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly on the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
He previously served as the Prime Minister of Turkey from 2003 to 2014 and as the Mayor of Istanbul from 1994 to 1998.
Istanbul, historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center.
Prime Minister's Office may refer to:
He founded the Justice and Development Party in 2001 and led it to three general election victories in 2002, 2007 and 2011 before standing down as leader upon his election as President in 2014.
Originating from an Islamist political background and as a self-described conservative democrat, his administration has overseen social conservative and liberal economic policies.
An economy is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents in a given geographical location.
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God.
His political agenda and ideals are often referred to as Erdoğanism.
Erdoğanism refers to the political ideals and agenda of Turkish President and former Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who became Prime Minister in 2003 and served until his election to the Presidency in 2014.
Erdoğan was a semi-professional footballer playing for Kasımpaşa before being elected as the Mayor of Istanbul from the Islamist Welfare Party in 1994.
He was stripped and banned from office and imprisoned for 4 months for the recitation of a poem in a political speech in 1998 after which he abandoned openly Islamist politics and established the moderate conservative AKP in 2001.
The AKP won a landslide victory in the 2002 general election, with the party's co-founder Abdullah Gül becoming Prime Minister until his government annulled Erdoğan's ban from political office.
Erdoğan subsequently became Prime Minister in March 2003 after winning a seat in a by-election held in Siirt.
As part of his '2023 vision' for the centenary of the Turkish Republic, Erdoğan's government oversaw accession negotiations for Turkey's membership of the European Union, an economic recovery following a financial crash in 2001, two successful constitutional referendums in 2007 and 2010, a Solution process with Kurdish militants, an allegedly Neo-Ottoman foreign policy and investments in infrastructure that included new roads, airports, and a high-speed train network.
The 2023 vision is a list of goals released by the administration of Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, to coincide with the centenary of the Republic of Turkey in 2023.
Solution process, also known as the Kurdish–Turkish peace process, was a peace process, which had aimed to resolve the long-running Kurdish–Turkish conflict.
A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a state of war between the parties.
With the help of Fethullah Gülen's Cemaat Movement, Erdoğan was able to curb the political power of the military through the controversial Sledgehammer and Ergenekon court cases.
The military, also called the armed forces, are forces authorized to use deadly force, and weapons, to support the interests of the state and some or all of its citizens.
Muhammed Fethullah Gülen is a Turkish preacher, former imam, writer, and political figure.
In late 2012, his government began peace negotiations with the Kurdistan Workers Party to end the ongoing PKK insurgency that began in 1978.
Peace is a lack of conflict and freedom from fear of violence between heterogeneous social groups.
The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK is a left-wing organization based in Turkey and Iraq.
The ceasefire broke down in 2015, leading to a renewed escalation in conflict.
In 2016, a coup d'état was unsuccessfully attempted against Erdoğan and Turkish state institutions.
This was followed by purges and an ongoing state of emergency.
Nationwide protests against the perceived authoritarianism of Erdoğan's government began in May 2013, with the internationally criticised police crackdown resulting in 22 deaths and the stalling of EU membership negotiations.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
Following a split with long-time ally Fethullah Gülen, Erdoğan brought about large-scale judicial reforms that were criticised for threatening judicial independence, but which Erdoğan insisted were necessary to purge sympathisers of the preacher Fethullah Gulen.
A US$100 billion government corruption scandal in 2013 led to the arrests of Erdoğan's close allies, with Erdoğan himself incriminated after a recording was released on social media.
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that allow individuals, companies, NGOs, governments, and other organizations to view, create and share information, ideas, and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.
Erdoğan's government has since come under fire for alleged human rights violations and crackdown on press and social media, having blocked access to Twitter, Facebook and YouTube on numerous occasions.
Erdoğan's government lifted the bans upon court orders.