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10 Facts About Race

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1

A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.

Modern humans are the only extant members of Hominina clade, a branch of the taxonomical tribe Hominini belonging to the family of great apes.

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First used to refer to speakers of a common language and then to denote national affiliations, by the 17th century the term race began to refer to physical traits.

Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system.

A nation is a large group or collective of people with common characteristics attributed to them — including language, traditions, mores, habitus, and ethnicity.

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3

Modern scholarship regards race as a social construct, that is, a symbolic identity created to establish some cultural meaning.

Social constructionism or the social construction of reality is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality.

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While partially based on physical similarities within groups, race is not an inherent physical or biological quality.

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Social conceptions and groupings of races vary over time, involving folk taxonomies that define essential types of individuals based on perceived traits.

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Scientists consider biological essentialism obsolete, and generally discourage racial explanations for collective differentiation in both physical and behavioral traits.

Behavior or behaviour is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the physical environment.

Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function.

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Even though there is a broad scientific agreement that essentialist and typological conceptualizations of race are untenable, scientists around the world continue to conceptualize race in widely differing ways, some of which have essentialist implications.

The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.

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While some researchers use the concept of race to make distinctions among fuzzy sets of traits or observable differences in behaviour, others in the scientific community suggest that the idea of race often is used in a naive or simplistic way, and argue that, among humans, race has no taxonomic significance by pointing out that all living humans belong to the same species, Homo sapiens, and subspecies, Homo sapiens sapiens.

The term anatomically modern humans or anatomically modern Homo sapiens refers in paleoanthropology to individual members of the species Homo sapiens with an appearance consistent with the range of phenotypes in modern humans.

In biological classification, subspecies is either a taxonomic rank subordinate to species, or a taxonomic unit in that rank.

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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Since the second half of the 20th century, the association of race with the ideologies and theories of scientific racism has led to the use of the word race itself becoming problematic.

Scientific racism is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism, racial inferiority, or racial superiority.

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10

Although still used in general contexts, race has often been replaced by less ambiguous and loaded terms: populations, people, ethnic groups, or communities, depending on context.

An ethnic group or ethnicity is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral, language, social, cultural or national experiences.

In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.

A community is a small or large social unit who have something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.

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