Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.

An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.

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These skin patches are typically red, or purple on some people with darker skin, dry, itchy, and scaly.

Itch is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.

Psoriasis - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology by Osmosis


Psoriasis varies in severity from small, localized patches to complete body coverage.


Injury to the skin can trigger psoriatic skin changes at that spot, which is known as the Koebner phenomenon.

The Koebner phenomenon or Köbner phenomenon, also called the Koebner response or the isomorphic response, attributed to Heinrich Köbner, is the appearance of skin lesions on lines of trauma.


There are five main types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular, and erythrodermic.

Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection.


Plaque psoriasis, also known as psoriasis vulgaris, makes up about 90 percent of cases.


It typically presents as red patches with white scales on top.


Areas of the body most commonly affected are the back of the forearms, shins, navel area, and scalp.

The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the human face at the front, and by the neck at the sides and back.


Guttate psoriasis has drop-shaped lesions.

Guttate psoriasis is a type of psoriasis that presents as small lesions over the upper trunk and proximal extremities; it is found frequently in young adults.


Pustular psoriasis presents as small non-infectious pus-filled blisters.

A blister is a small pocket of body fluid within the upper layers of the skin, typically caused by forceful rubbing, burning, freezing, chemical exposure or infection.

The term pustular psoriasis is used for a heterogeneous group of diseases that share pustular skin characteristics.

An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.


Inverse psoriasis forms red patches in skin folds.

Inverse psoriasis or flexural psoriasis is a form of psoriasis that selectively, and often exclusively, involves the folds, recesses, and flexor surfaces such as the ears, axillae, groin folds, inframammary folds, navel, intergluteal cleft, penis, lips, and webspaces.

Skin folds or skinfolds are areas of skin where it folds.


Erythrodermic psoriasis occurs when the rash becomes very widespread, and can develop from any of the other types.


Fingernails and toenails are affected in most people with psoriasis at some point in time.


This may include pits in the nails or changes in nail color.


Psoriasis is generally thought to be a genetic disease that is triggered by environmental factors.

A genetic disorder is a health problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.


If one twin has psoriasis, the other twin is three times more likely to be affected if the twins are identical than if they are non-identical.

Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.


This suggests that genetic factors predispose to psoriasis.


Symptoms often worsen during winter and with certain medications, such as beta blockers or NSAIDs.

Beta blockers are a class of medications that are predominantly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack after a first heart attack.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are members of a drug class that reduces pain, decreases fever, prevents blood clots, and in higher doses, decreases inflammation.

A pharmaceutical drug is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.


Infections and psychological stress can also play a role.

In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.


Psoriasis is not contagious.

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