Prostate Cancer


Prostate cancer, also known as carcinoma of the prostate, is the development of cancer in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system.

A gland is an organ in an animal's body that synthesizes substances for release into the bloodstream or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface.

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".

Prostate cancer: Essential facts by Institute for Cancer Genetics and Informatics


Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, some grow relatively quickly.

What's New in Prostate Cancer Treatment - Research on Aging by University of California Television (UCTV)


The cancer cells may spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes.

A lymph node or lymph gland, is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.

A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.


It may initially cause no symptoms.


In later stages it can lead to difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, or pain in the pelvis, back or when urinating.

Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

The pelvis is either the lower part of the trunk of the human body between the abdomen and the thighs or the skeleton embedded in it.

Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in the bodies of many animals, including humans.


A disease known as benign prostatic hyperplasia may produce similar symptoms.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia, also called benign enlargement of the prostate, is a noncancerous increase in size of the prostate.


Other late symptoms may include feeling tired due to low levels of red blood cells.


Factors that increase the risk of prostate cancer include: older age, a family history of the disease, and race.


About 99% of cases occur in those over the age of 50.


Having a first-degree relative with the disease increases the risk two to threefold.


In the United States it is more common in the African American population than the white American population.

The United States of America, commonly referred to as the United States or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa.

White Americans are Americans who are considered or reported as white.


Other factors that may be involved include a diet high in processed meat, red meat, or milk products or low in certain vegetables.

Commonly, especially in gastronomy, red meat or dark meat is red when raw and dark in color when cooked, in contrast to white meat, which is pale in color before and after cooking.

Dairy products or milk products are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, and camels.

Processed meat is considered to be any meat which has been modified in order to either improve its taste or extend its shelf life.


An association with gonorrhea has been found, but a reason for this relationship has not been identified.

Gonorrhea, also spelled gonorrhoea, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.


Prostate cancer is diagnosed by biopsy.

A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.


Medical imaging may then be done to determine if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues.


Prostate cancer screening is controversial.

Prostate cancer screening is an attempt to identify individuals with prostate cancer in a broad segment of the population—those for whom there is no reason to suspect prostate cancer.


Prostate-specific antigen testing increases cancer detection but does not decrease mortality.

Prostate-specific antigen, also known as gamma-seminoprotein or kallikrein-3, is a glycoprotein enzyme encoded in humans by the KLK3 gene.

PSA, PsA, Psa, or psa may refer to:


The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening using the PSA test, due to the risk of overdiagnosis and overtreatment, as most cancer diagnosed would remain asymptomatic.

The United States Preventive Services Task Force is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services."

Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of "disease" that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's lifetime.

Unnecessary health care is healthcare provided with a higher volume or cost than is appropriate.


The USPSTF concludes that the potential benefits of testing do not outweigh the expected harms.


While 5α-reductase inhibitors appear to decrease low-grade cancer risk they do not affect high-grade cancer risk and thus are not recommended for prevention.

5α-Reductase inhibitors are a class of drugs with antiandrogen effects, used primarily in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenic alopecia.

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