The presidency of Barack Obama began at noon EST on January 20, 2009, when Barack Obama was inaugurated as President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2017.
The United States of America, commonly referred to as the United States or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician who is the 44th and current President of the United States.
Obama, a Democrat, took office as the 44th United States president following a decisive victory over Republican John McCain in the 2008 presidential election.
John Sidney McCain III is the senior United States Senator from Arizona.
Four years later, in the 2012 election, he defeated Mitt Romney to win re-election to office.
Willard Mitt Romney, better known as Mitt Romney, is an American businessman and politician who served as the 70th Governor of Massachusetts from 2003 to 2007 and was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2012 election.
He was the first African American president, the first multiracial president, the first non-white president, and the first president to have been born in Hawaii.
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the Black racial groups of Africa.
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state of the United States of America, receiving statehood on August 21, 1959.
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races.
Obama was succeeded by Republican Donald Trump.
Donald John Trump is an American businessman, television producer and politician, who is the Republican Party nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
Obama's first-term actions addressed the global financial crisis and included a major stimulus package, a partial extension of the Bush tax cuts, legislation to reform health care, a major financial regulation reform bill, and the end of a major US military presence in Iraq.
Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest, and Syria to the west.
The phrase Bush tax cuts refers to changes to the United States tax code passed originally during the presidency of George W. Bush and extended during the presidency of Barack Obama, through:
Obama also appointed Supreme Court Justices Elena Kagan and Sonia Sotomayor, the latter of whom became the first Hispanic American on the Supreme Court.
Sonia Maria Sotomayor is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving since August 2009.
Democrats controlled both houses of Congress until Republicans won a majority in the House of Representatives in the 2010 elections.
Following the elections, Obama and Congressional Republicans engaged in a protracted stand-off over government spending levels and the debt ceiling.
In his second term, Obama took steps to combat climate change, signing a major international climate agreement and an executive order to limit carbon emissions.
United States presidents issue executive orders to help officers and agencies of the executive branch manage the operations within the federal government itself.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range.
Obama also presided over the implementation of the Affordable Care Act and other legislation passed in his first term, and he negotiated rapprochements with Iran and Cuba.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, commonly called the Affordable Care Act and nicknamed Obamacare, is a United States federal statute enacted by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a unitary sovereign state comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia.
The number of American soldiers in Afghanistan fell dramatically during Obama's second term, though U.S. soldiers remained in Afghanistan throughout Obama's presidency.
Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Republicans took control of the Senate after the 2014 elections, and Obama continued to grapple with Congressional Republicans over government spending, immigration, judicial nominations, and other issues.