Politics of Poland


Politics of Poland takes place in the framework of a democracy, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government of a multi-party system and the President is the head of state.

Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.

A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.

Democracy, in modern usage, is a system of government in which the citizens exercise power directly or elect representatives from among themselves to form a governing body, such as a parliament.

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Executive power is exercised by the President and the Government, which consists of a council of ministers led by the Prime Minister.

The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.

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Its members are typically chosen from a majority coalition in the lower house of parliament, although exceptions to this rule are not uncommon.


The government is formally announced by the president, and must pass a motion of confidence in the Sejm within two weeks.


Legislative power is vested in the two chambers of parliament, Sejm and Senate.

A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.


Members of Sejm are elected by proportional representation, with the proviso that non-ethnic-minority parties must gain at least 5% of the national vote to enter the lower house.

Proportional representation characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body.


Currently five parties are represented.


Parliamentary elections occur at least every four years.


The president, as the head of state, is the supreme commander of the Armed Forces, has the power to veto legislation passed by parliament, which can be overridden by a majority of three fifths, and can dissolve the parliament under certain conditions; presidential elections occur every 5 years, if none of the candidates receives the most votes on the first round, a runoff election will be held with the two most voted candidates.


The political system is defined in the Polish Constitution, which also guarantees a wide range of individual freedoms.


The judicial branch plays a minor role in politics, apart from the Constitutional Tribunal, which can annul laws that violate the freedoms guaranteed in the constitution.

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