Pharmaceutical Drug


A pharmaceutical drug is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

A cure is the end of a medical condition; the substance or procedure that ends the medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle, or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured.

A drug is any substance other than food, that when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body.

A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism.

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Drug therapy is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management.

Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism.

Treat, Treats, or TREAT may refer to:

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Drugs are classified in various ways.


One of the key divisions is by level of control, which distinguishes prescription drugs from over-the-counter drugs.

Over-the-counter drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as compared to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.


Another key distinction is between traditional small-molecule drugs, usually derived from chemical synthesis, and biopharmaceuticals, which include recombinant proteins, vaccines, blood products used therapeutically, gene therapy, monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy.

Recombinant DNA molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.

A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.

Cell therapy is therapy in which cellular material is injected into a patient; this generally means intact, living cells.


Other ways to classify medicines are by mode of action, route of administration, biological system affected, or therapeutic effects.

A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.

A therapeutic effect is a consequence of a medical treatment of any kind, the results of which are judged to be desirable and beneficial.

Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.


An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System.

The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic, pharmacological and chemical properties.

Classification is a general process related to categorization, the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood.


The World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines.

Essential medicines, as defined by the World Health Organization, are the medicines that "satisfy the priority health care needs of the population".

The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.


Drug discovery and drug development are complex and expensive endeavors undertaken by pharmaceutical companies, academic scientists, and governments.

A developed country, industrialized country, or "more economically developed country", is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

Drug development is the process of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery.

In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which new candidate medications are discovered.


Governments generally regulate what drugs can be marketed, how drugs are marketed, and in some jurisdictions, drug pricing.

Jurisdiction is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.


Controversies have arisen over drug pricing and disposal of used drugs.

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