In chemistry, pH is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, are slippery to the touch, taste astringent, change the color of indicators, react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions, accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron, or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair.
Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.
pH and pOH: Crash Course Chemistry #30 by CrashCourse
It is approximately the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration, measured in units of moles per liter, of hydrogen ions.
Molar concentration, also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration, is a measure of the concentration of a solute in a solution, or of any chemical species, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume.
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse operation to exponentiation, just as division is the inverse of multiplication and vice versa.
A hydrogen ion is created when a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron.
Acids, Bases, and pH by Bozeman Science
More precisely it is the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the activity of the hydrogen ion.
Solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic.
Pure water is neutral, at pH 7, being neither an acid nor a base.
Contrary to popular belief, the pH value can be less than 0 or greater than 14 for very strong acids and bases respectively.
pH measurements are important in agronomy, medicine, biology, chemistry, agriculture, forestry, food science, environmental science, oceanography, civil engineering, chemical engineering, nutrition, water treatment and water purification, as well as in many other applications.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings.
Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that applies physical sciences, life sciences, together with applied mathematics and economics to produce, transform, transport, and properly use chemicals, materials and energy.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
The pH scale is traceable to a set of standard solutions whose pH is established by international agreement.
Primary pH standard values are determined using a concentration cell with transference, by measuring the potential difference between a hydrogen electrode and a standard electrode such as the silver chloride electrode.
The Standard hydrogen electrode, is a redox electrode which forms the basis of the thermodynamic scale of oxidation-reduction potentials.
A silver chloride electrode is a type of reference electrode, commonly used in electrochemical measurements.
The pH of aqueous solutions can be measured with a glass electrode and a pH meter, or an indicator.
A pH meter is a scientific instrument that measures the hydrogen-ion activity in water-based solutions, indicating its acidity or alkalinity expressed as pH.
A glass electrode is a type of ion-selective electrode made of a doped glass membrane that is sensitive to a specific ion.