Pennsylvania, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
The United States of America, commonly referred to as the United States or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
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The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle.
The Appalachian Mountains, often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
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The commonwealth borders Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the eleventh-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area.
Ontario, one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada, is located in east-central Canada.
Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States.
The state's five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, and Reading.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the sixth-most populous city in the United States, with an estimated population of 1,567,872 and more than 6 million in the seventh-largest metropolitan statistical area, as of 2016.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
The state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg.
Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary.
The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States; it came into being in 1681 as a result of a royal land grant to William Penn, the son of the state's namesake.
William Penn was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with the Kingdom of Great Britain, regarded themselves as thirteen independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule.
Independence Hall is the building where both the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted.
A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state.
During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state.
The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War.
The American Civil War was a civil war in the United States fought from 1861 to 1865.
Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78.