Organ Transplantation


Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.

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The donor and recipient may be at the same location, or organs may be transported from a donor site to another location.

Organ Donation & Liver Transplantation by rushalini rajkumar


Organs and/or tissues that are transplanted within the same person's body are called autografts.

Autotransplantation is the transplantation of organs, tissues, or even particular proteins from one part of the body to another in the same person.


Transplants that are recently performed between two subjects of the same species are called allografts.

Allotransplant is the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs, to a recipient from a genetically non-identical donor of the same species.

In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank.


Allografts can either be from a living or cadaveric source.


Organs that have been successfully transplanted include the heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, pancreas, intestine, and thymus.

The heart is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

The lungs are the primary organs of respiration in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found on the left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.


Some organs, like the brain, cannot be transplanted.


Tissues include bones, tendons, corneae, skin, heart valves, nerves and veins.

A heart valve normally allows blood to flow in only one direction through the heart.


Worldwide, the kidneys are the most commonly transplanted organs, followed by the liver and then the heart.


Corneae and musculoskeletal grafts are the most commonly transplanted tissues; these outnumber organ transplants by more than tenfold.


Organ donors may be living, brain dead, or dead via circulatory death.


Tissue may be recovered from donors who die of circulatory death, as well as of brain death – up to 24 hours past the cessation of heartbeat.


Unlike organs, most tissues can be preserved and stored for up to five years, meaning they can be "banked".


Transplantation raises a number of bioethical issues, including the definition of death, when and how consent should be given for an organ to be transplanted, and payment for organs for transplantation.

Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

Bioethics is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in biology and medicine.


Other ethical issues include transplantation tourism and more broadly the socio-economic context in which organ procurement or transplantation may occur.


A particular problem is organ trafficking.

Organ trade is the trade of human organs, tissues or other body parts for the purpose of transplantation.


Transplantation medicine is one of the most challenging and complex areas of modern medicine.


Some of the key areas for medical management are the problems of transplant rejection, during which the body has an immune response to the transplanted organ, possibly leading to transplant failure and the need to immediately remove the organ from the recipient.

Immune response is the immunological response originating from immune system activation by antigens, including immunity to pathogenic microorganisms and its products, as well as autoimmunity to self-antigens allergies, and graft ejections.

Transplant rejection occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue.


When possible, transplant rejection can be reduced through serotyping to determine the most appropriate donor-recipient match and through the use of immunosuppressant drugs.

Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.

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