Niccolò Machiavelli, or more formally Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli, was an Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer.
The Italian Renaissance was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.
Niccolo Machiavelli Biography by CloudBiography
He has often been called the founder of modern political science.
Political science is a social science discipline that deals with systems of government, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts and political behaviour.
POLITICAL THEORY - Niccolò Machiavelli by The School of Life
He was for many years a senior official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs.
The Republic of Florence, also known as the Florentine Republic, was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany.
He also wrote comedies, carnival songs, and poetry.
His personal correspondence is renowned in the Italian language.
He was secretary to the Second Chancery of the Republic of Florence from 1498 to 1512, when the Medici were out of power.
A republic is a sovereign state or country which is organized with a form of government in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.
The House of Medici was an Italian banking family, political dynasty and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century.
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the Metropolitan City of Florence.
He wrote his most renowned work The Prince in 1513.
The Prince is a 16th-century political treatise, by the Italian diplomat and political theorist, Niccolò Machiavelli.
"Machiavellianism" is a widely used negative term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli described most famously in The Prince.
Machiavellianism is "the employment of cunning and duplicity in statecraft or in general conduct".
Machiavelli described immoral behavior, such as dishonesty and killing innocents, as being normal and effective in politics.
Politics is the process of making decisions applying to all members of each group.
He even seemed to endorse it in some situations.
The book itself gained notoriety when some readers claimed that the author was teaching evil, and providing "evil recommendations to tyrants to help them maintain their power."
The term "Machiavellian" is often associated with political deceit, deviousness, and realpolitik.
Realpolitik is politics or diplomacy based primarily on considerations of given circumstances and factors, rather than explicit ideological notions or moral and ethical premises.
On the other hand, many commentators, such as Baruch Spinoza, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Denis Diderot, have argued that Machiavelli was actually a republican, even when writing The Prince, and his writings were an inspiration to Enlightenment proponents of modern democratic political philosophy.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Francophone Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century.
Baruch Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
In one place for example he noted his admiration for the selfless Roman dictator Cincinnatus.
Lucius Quinctius or Quintius Cincinnatus was a Roman patrician, statesman, and military leader of the early Republic who became a legendary figure of Roman virtues—particularly Roman manliness and civic virtue—by the time of the Empire.