Newfoundland is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere.
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It has 29 percent of the province's land area.
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The island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Cape Breton Island by the Cabot Strait.
The Strait of Belle Isle is a waterway in eastern Canada that separates the Labrador Peninsula from the island of Newfoundland, in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Cabot Strait is a strait in eastern Canada approximately 110 kilometres wide between Cape Ray, Newfoundland and Cape North, Cape Breton Island.
It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest estuary.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence is the outlet of the North American Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean.
The Saint Lawrence River is a large river in the middle latitudes of North America.
Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the French overseas community of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.
With an area of 108,860 square kilometres, Newfoundland is the world's 16th-largest island, Canada's fourth-largest island, and the largest Canadian island outside the North.
Canadians are the people who are identified with the country of Canada.
The provincial capital, St. John's, is located on the southeastern coast of the island; Cape Spear, just south of the capital, is the easternmost point of North America, excluding Greenland.
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
It is common to consider all directly neighbouring islands such as New World, Twillingate, Fogo and Bell Island to be 'part of Newfoundland'.
The New World is one of the names used for the Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas.
By that classification, Newfoundland and its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 square kilometres.
According to 2006 official Census Canada statistics, 57% of responding Newfoundland and Labradorians claim British or Irish ancestry, with 43.2% claiming at least one English parent, 21.5% at least one Irish parent, and 7% at least one parent of Scottish origin.
Additionally 6.1% claimed at least one parent of French ancestry.
The island's total population as of the 2006 census was 479,105.