Newfoundland and Labrador


Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province of Canada.

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Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of 405,212 square kilometres.

Newfoundland is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

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In 2013, the province's population was estimated at 526,702.


About 92% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland, of whom more than half live on the Avalon Peninsula.

The Avalon Peninsula is a large peninsula that makes up the southeast portion of the island of Newfoundland.


The province is Canada's most linguistically homogeneous, with 97.6% of residents reporting English as their mother tongue in the 2006 census.


Historically, Newfoundland was also home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the extinct Beothuk language.

The Beothuk language, also called Beothukan, was spoken by the indigenous Beothuk people of Newfoundland.


In Labrador, local dialects of Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are also spoken.

Inuktitut, also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, refers to the entire culture of the Eastern Canadian Inuit, their values, societal norms, mannerisms and language; that is, "to do anything in the manner of an Inuk".

The Innu are the Aboriginal inhabitants of an area in Canada they refer to as Nitassinan, which comprises most of the northeastern portion of the province of Quebec and some eastern portions of Labrador.

Innu-aimun or Montagnais is an Algonquian language spoken by over 10,000 Innu in Labrador and Quebec in Eastern Canada.


Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John's, is Canada's 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to almost 40 percent of the province's population.


St. John's is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and to the highest court in the jurisdiction, the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal.

The Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly is one of two components of the General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador, the other being the Lieutenant Governor.

The Supreme Court of Newfoundland and Labrador is at the top of the hierarchy of courts for the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.


A former colony and then dominion of the United Kingdom, Newfoundland gave up its independence in 1933, following significant economic distress caused by the Great Depression and the aftermath of Newfoundland's participation in World War I. It became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31, 1949, as "Newfoundland."

Canadian Confederation was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.

World War I, also known as the First World War, or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s.


On December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's official name to Newfoundland and Labrador.

The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions.

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