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the New Model Army

1

The New Model Army of England was formed in 1645 by the Parliamentarians in the English Civil War, and was disbanded in 1660 after the Restoration.

The English Civil War was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists principally over the manner of England's governance.

An army or ground force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.

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2

It differed from other armies in the series of civil wars referred to as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in that it was intended as an army liable for service anywhere in the country, rather than being tied to a single area or garrison.

The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland between 1639 and 1651.

Garrison is the collective term for any body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base.

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3

Its soldiers became full-time professionals, rather than part-time militia.

A militia is generally an army or some other type of fighting unit that is composed of non-professional fighters, citizens of a nation or subjects of a state or government who can be called upon to enter a combat situation, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of the warrior nobility class.

A soldier is one who fights as part of an organised, land-based armed force.

4

To establish a professional officer corps, the army's leaders were prohibited from having seats in either the House of Lords or House of Commons.

The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, referred to ceremonially as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

5

This was to encourage their separation from the political or religious factions among the Parliamentarians.

6

The New Model Army was raised partly from among veteran soldiers who already had deeply held Puritan religious beliefs, and partly from conscripts who brought with them many commonly held beliefs about religion or society.

7

Many of its common soldiers therefore held dissenting or radical views unique among English armies.

8

Although the Army's senior officers did not share many of their soldiers' political opinions, their independence from Parliament led to the Army's willingness to contribute to the overthrow of both the Crown and Parliament's authority, and to establish a Commonwealth of England from 1649 to 1660, which included a period of direct military rule.

The Commonwealth was the political structure during the period from 1649 to 1660 when England and Wales, later along with Ireland and Scotland, were governed as a republic after the end of the Second English Civil War and the trial and execution of Charles I. The republic's existence was declared through "An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth", adopted by the Rump Parliament on 19 May 1649.

9

Ultimately, the Army's Generals could rely both on the Army's internal discipline and its religious zeal and innate support for the "Good Old Cause" to maintain an essentially dictatorial rule.

The Good Old Cause was the name given, retrospectively, by the soldiers of the New Model Army, to the complex of reasons that motivated their fight on behalf of the Parliament of England.

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