Naturalization is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state.
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It may be done by a statute, without any effort on the part of the individual, or it may involve an application and approval by legal authorities.
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The rules of naturalization vary from country to country and typically include a minimum legal residency requirement, and may specify other requirements such as knowledge of the national dominant language or culture, a promise to obey and uphold that country's laws.
An oath or pledge of allegiance is also sometimes required.
Some countries also require that the person renounce any other citizenship that they currently hold, forbidding dual citizenship, but whether this renunciation actually causes loss of the person's original citizenship, as seen by the host country and by the original country, will again depend on the laws of the countries involved.
Multiple citizenship, also called dual citizenship or multiple nationality or dual nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states.
The massive increase in population flux due to globalization and the sharp increase in the numbers of refugees following World War I created a large number of stateless persons, people who were not citizens of any state.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture.
World War I, also known as the First World War, or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely.
In some rare cases, procedures of mass naturalization were passed.
As naturalization laws had been designed to cater for the relatively few people who had voluntarily moved from one country to another, western democracies were not ready to naturalize the massive influx of stateless people which followed massive denationalizations and the expulsion of ethnic minorities from newly created nation states in the first part of the 20th century, but they also counted the Russians who had escaped the 1917 October Revolution and the war communism period, and then the Spanish refugees.
The October Revolution, officially known in the Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution, and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a seizure of state power instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
A nation state is a type of state that joins the political entity of a state to the cultural entity of a nation, from which it aims to derive its political legitimacy to rule and potentially its status as a sovereign state.
War Communism or military Communism was the economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War, from 1918 to 1921.
As Hannah Arendt pointed out, internment camps became the "only nation" of such stateless people, since they were often considered "undesirable" and were stuck in an illegal situation.
Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial.
Johanna "Hannah" Arendt was a German-born American political theorist.
Since World War II, the increase in international migrations created a new category of refugees, most of them economic refugees.
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier.
For economic, political, humanitarian and pragmatic reasons, many states passed laws allowing a person to acquire their citizenship after birth, in order to reduce the scope of this category.
However, in some countries this system still maintains a large part of the immigrated population in an illegal status, albeit some massive regularizations.