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the National Institutes of Health

1

The National Institutes of Health is a biomedical research facility primarily located in Bethesda, Maryland.

Bethesda is a census-designated place in southern Montgomery County, Maryland, United States, located just northwest of the U.S. capital of Washington, D.C. It takes its name from a local church, the Bethesda Meeting House, which in turn took its name from Jerusalem's Pool of Bethesda.

Maryland is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.

Biomedical research is in general simply known as medical research.

Signs, Symptoms, and Treatment of Depression by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)

2

An agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, it is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research.

The United States Department of Health and Human Services, also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

The Brain's Inner Workings Part I: Structure and Function by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)

3

The NIH both conducts its own scientific research through its Intramural Research Program and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its Extramural Research Program.

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With 1,200 principal investigators and more than 4,000 postdoctoral fellows in basic, translational, and clinical research, the IRP is the largest biomedical research institution in the world, while, as of 2003, the extramural arm provided 28% of biomedical research funding spent annually in the U.S., or about US$26.4 billion.

A principal investigator is the holder of an independent grant administered by a university and the lead researcher for the grant project, usually in the sciences, such as a laboratory study or a clinical trial.

Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use.

A postdoctoral researcher is a person professionally conducting research after the completion of their doctoral studies.

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The NIH comprises 27 separate institutes and centers that conduct research in different disciplines of biomedical science.

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The IRP is responsible for many scientific accomplishments, including the discovery of fluoride to prevent tooth decay, the use of lithium to manage bipolar disorder, and the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Haemophilus influenzae, and human papillomavirus.

Haemophilus influenzae is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a mental disorder with periods of depression and periods of elevated mood.

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