Monkeys are non-hominoid simians, generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species.
The simians or Anthropoids are the monkeys, incl. apes, cladistically including: the New World monkeys or platyrrhines, and the Catarrhine clade consisting of the Cercopithecidae and apes.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity.
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Many monkey species are tree-dwelling, although there are species that live primarily on the ground, such as baboons.
Baboons are primates comprising the genus Papio, one of the 23 genera of Old World monkeys.
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Monkeys are generally considered to be intelligent, particularly Old World monkeys.
Old World monkey is the common English name for a family of primates known taxonomically as the Cercopithecidae.
There are two major types of monkey: New World monkeys from South and Central America and Old World monkeys from Africa and Asia.
New World monkeys are the five families of primates that are found in the tropical regions of Central and South America and Mexico: Callitrichidae, Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae, and Atelidae.
Apes —consisting of gibbons, orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans—are also catarrines but are classically distinguished from monkeys.
Humans are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina, a branch of the tribe Hominini belonging to the family of great apes.
Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Sub-Saharan Africa.
The orangutans are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia.
Simians and tarsiers emerged within haplorrhines some 60 million years ago.
Tarsiiformes are a group of primates that once ranged across Europe, northern Africa, Asia, and North America, but whose extant species are all found in the islands of Southeast Asia.
Tarsiers are any haplorrhine primates of the family Tarsiidae, which is itself the lone extant family within the infraorder Tarsiiformes.
Extinct basal simians such as Aegyptopithecus or Parapithecus [35-32 million years ago] are also considered monkeys by primatologists.
Aegyptopithecus is an early fossil catarrhine that predates the divergence between hominoids and cercopithecids.
Parapithecus is an extinct genus of primate that lived during the Earliest Oligocene in what is now Egypt.
Lemurs, lorises, and galagos are not monkeys; instead they are strepsirrhine primates.
Galagos, also known as bush babies, or nagapies, are small nocturnal primates native to continental Africa, and make up the family Galagidae.
Lemurs are mammals of the order Primates, divided into 8 families and consisting of 15 genera and around 100 existing species.
Like monkeys, tarsiers are haplorhine primates; however, they are also not monkeys.
Apes emerged within the catarrhines with the Old World monkeys as a sister group, so cladistically they are monkeys as well.
Cladistics is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups based on the most recent common ancestor.
However, traditionally apes are not considered monkeys, rendering this grouping paraphyletic.
In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.
The smallest clade that includes all monkeys and hence their ape offshoot are the simians.