Michael Faraday FRS was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
Michael Faraday | A Documentary by Rajesh Asir
His main discoveries include the principles underlying electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis.
An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.
Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.
Electromagnetic or Magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force across an electrical conductor due to its dynamic interaction with a magnetic field.
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Although Faraday received little formal education, he was one of the most influential scientists in history.
It was by his research on the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a direct current that Faraday established the basis for the concept of the electromagnetic field in physics.
Faraday also established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena.
He similarly discovered the principles of electromagnetic induction and diamagnetism, and the laws of electrolysis.
His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became practical for use in technology.
An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process.
As a chemist, Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the Bunsen burner and the system of oxidation numbers, and popularised terminology such as "anode", "cathode", "electrode" and "ion".
Clathrate hydrates, or gas clathrates, gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates, etc., are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, in which small non-polar molecules or polar molecules with large hydrophobic moieties are trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen bonded, frozen water molecules.
A Bunsen burner, named after Robert Bunsen, is a common piece of laboratory equipment that produces a single open gas flame, which is used for heating, sterilization, and combustion.
The oxidation state, often called the oxidation number, is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound.
Faraday ultimately became the first and foremost Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, a lifetime position.
The Royal Institution of Great Britain is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London.
The Fullerian Chairs at the Royal Institution were established by John 'Mad Jack' Fuller.
Faraday was an excellent experimentalist who conveyed his ideas in clear and simple language; his mathematical abilities, however, did not extend as far as trigonometry and were limited to the simplest algebra.
Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.
James Clerk Maxwell took the work of Faraday and others and summarized it in a set of equations which is accepted as the basis of all modern theories of electromagnetic phenomena.
On Faraday's uses of lines of force, Maxwell wrote that they show Faraday "to have been in reality a mathematician of a very high order – one from whom the mathematicians of the future may derive valuable and fertile methods."
A line of force in Faraday's extended sense is synonymous with Maxwell's line of induction.
The SI unit of capacitance is named in his honour: the farad.
Albert Einstein kept a picture of Faraday on his study wall, alongside pictures of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell.
Sir Isaac Newton FRS was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Physicist Ernest Rutherford stated, "When we consider the magnitude and extent of his discoveries and their influence on the progress of science and of industry, there is no honour too great to pay to the memory of Faraday, one of the greatest scientific discoverers of all time."
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, OM, FRS was a New Zealand physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.