Melting, or fusion, is a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.

An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.

The term phase transition is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid, and gaseous states of matter, as well as plasma in rare cases.

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a constant volume independent of pressure.

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This occurs when the internal energy of the solid increases, typically by the application of heat or pressure, which increases the substance's temperature to the melting point.

In physics, heat is energy that spontaneously passes between a system and its surroundings in some way other than through work or the transfer of matter.

Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the total energy contained within the system.

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At the melting point, the ordering of ions or molecules in the solid breaks down to a less ordered state, and the solid melts to become a liquid.

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.


An object that has melted completely is molten.


Substances in the molten state generally have reduced viscosity as the temperature increases.

The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to deformation at a given rate.


An exception to this principle is the element sulfur, whose viscosity increases to a point due to polymerization and then decreases with higher temperatures in its molten state.

In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.


Some organic compounds melt through mesophases, states of partial order between solid and liquid.

In chemistry and chemical physics, a mesophase is a state of matter intermediate between liquid and solid.

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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