the Mediterranean Sea


The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.

Anatolia, in geography known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

Some definitions of southern Europe, also known as Mediterranean Europe, include the countries of the Iberian peninsula, the Italian peninsula, Southern France, Greece and Malta.

Exploring Oceans: Mediterranean by National Geographic


The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water.

The Mediterranean sea by Planetsea


The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of land".

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.


It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide.


The Strait of Gibraltar is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa.

Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain, is a sovereign state largely located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe, with archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea, and several small territories on and near the North African coast.

Morocco, officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa.

A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water.


In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.

Oceanography, also known as oceanology, is the branch of Geography that studies the ocean.


The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea.

Calypso Deep, located in the Ionian Sea south-west of Pylos, Greece, is the deepest part of the Mediterranean Sea, with a maximum depth of 5,267 m, at 36°34′N 21°8′E.


The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, and in the south by Africa.

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres and sharing the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe.


It is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is approximately 4,000 km.

Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental parliamentary republic in Eurasia, mainly on the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.


The sea's average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km.

Libya is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and n*gg*r to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.


The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has a surface area of approximately 2,510,000 square km.

The Sea of Marmara, also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis, is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.


The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region.


The history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies.

The history of the Mediterranean region is the history of the interaction of the cultures and people of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea—the central superhighway of transport, trade and cultural exchange between diverse peoples—encompassing three continents: Western Asia, North Africa, and Southern Europe.

History is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.


The countries with coastlines on the Mediterranean Sea are Albania, Algeria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Monaco, Montenegro, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Tunisia and Turkey.

Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or Bosnia & Herzegovina, abbreviated BiH or B&H, and, in short, often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

Albania, officially the Republic of Albania, is a country in Southeast Europe, bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east, and Greece to the south and southeast.

Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.


In addition, Palestine's Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.

The Gaza Strip, or simply Gaza, is a small self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for 11 kilometers and Israel on the east and north along a 51 km border.

Akrotiri and Dhekelia, officially the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, is a British Overseas Territory on the island of Cyprus.

The fourteen British Overseas Territories are territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.

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