The media of Russia refers to mass media outlets based in the Russian Federation.
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
Russia, also officially known as the Russian Federation, is a federal state in Eurasia.
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The media of Russia is diverse, with a wide range of broadcast and print outlets available to the consumer.
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Television, magazines, and newspapers are all operated by both state-owned and for-profit corporations which depend on advertising, subscription, and other sales-related revenues.
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, nonpersonal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
The subscription business model is a business model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to the product/service.
The Constitution of Russia guarantees freedom of speech.
The current Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted by national referendum on December 12, 1993.
Russian constitution and Constitution of the RSFSR may refer to:
As a country in transition, Russia's media system is under transformation.
A transition economy or transitional economy is an economy which is changing from a centrally planned economy to a market economy.
There are more than 83,000 active and officially registered media outlets in Russia that broadcast information in 102 languages.
Of the total number of media outlets, the breakdown is as follows: magazines – 37%, newspapers – 28%, online media – 11, TV – 10%, radio – 7% and news agencies – 2%.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating some property of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Of the total number of media outlets, 63% can distribute information across Russia, 35% can broadcast abroad and 15% in the CIS region.
There are three television channels with a nationwide outreach, and a multitude of regional channels.
Television or TV is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
Local and national newspapers are the second most popular choice, while the Internet comes third.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link billions of devices worldwide.
In all media spheres there is a mixture of private and state-ownership.
The three nationwide television channels have been criticised for their alleged lack of neutrality.
The organisation Reporters Without Borders compiles and publishes an annual ranking of countries based upon the organisation's assessment of their press freedom records.
Reporters Without Borders, or Reporters Sans Frontières, is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
In 2013 Russia was ranked 148th out of 179 countries, six places below the previous year, mainly due to the return of Vladimir Putin.
Freedom House compiles a similar ranking and placed Russia at number 176 out of 197 countries for press freedom for 2013, putting it level with Sudan and Ethiopia.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501 U.S. Government funded non-governmental organisation that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
The Committee to Protect Journalists states that Russia was the country with the 10th largest number of journalists killed since 1992, 26 of them since the beginning of 2000, including four from Novaya Gazeta.
The Committee to Protect Journalists is an American independent non-profit, non-governmental organization, based in New York City, New York with correspondents around the world.
Novaya Gazeta is a Russian newspaper well known in its country for its critical and investigative coverage of Russian political and social affairs.
It also placed Russia at number 9 in the world for numbers of journalists killed with complete impunity.
In December 2014, a Russian investigative site published e-mails, leaked by the hackers' group Shaltai Boltai, which indicated close links between Timur Prokopenko, a member of Vladimir Putin's administration, and Russian journalists, some of whom published Kremlin-prepared articles under their own names.