Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr., ONH, was a Jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator who was a proponent of the Pan-Africanism movement, to which end he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League.
The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League is a black nationalist fraternal organization founded in 1914 by Marcus Mosiah Garvey.
Pan-Africanism is a worldwide intellectual movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all people of African descent.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea, consisting of the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles.
Marcus Garvey by Little Dread
He also founded the Black Star Line, a shipping and passenger line which promoted the return of the African diaspora to their ancestral lands.
The African diaspora refers to the communities throughout the world that have resulted by descent from the movement in historic times of peoples from Africa, predominantly to the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and among other areas around the globe.
The Black Star Line was a shipping line incorporated by Marcus Garvey, the organizer of the Universal Negro Improvement Association, and other members of the UNIA.
The Legacy of Marcus Garvey with Dr. Julius Garvey by RockNewmanShow
Prior to the 20th century, leaders such as Prince Hall, Martin Delany, Edward Wilmot Blyden, and Henry Highland Garnet advocated the involvement of the African diaspora in African affairs.
Prince Hall was an African American noted as an abolitionist for his leadership in the free black community in Boston and as the founder of Prince Hall Freemasonry.
Martin Robison Delany was an African-American abolitionist, journalist, physician, and writer, and arguably the first proponent of black nationalism.
Edward Wilmot Blyden, the father of pan-Africanism, was an educator, writer, diplomat, and politician primarily in Liberia.
Garvey was unique in advancing a Pan-African philosophy to inspire a global mass movement and economic empowerment focusing on Africa known as Garveyism.
The term empowerment refers to measures designed to increase the degree of autonomy and self-determination in people and in communities in order to enable them to represent their interests in a responsible and self-determined way, acting on their own authority.
African philosophy is philosophy produced by African people, philosophy that presents African worldviews, or philosophy that uses distinct African philosophical methods.
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Promoted by the UNIA as a movement of African Redemption, Garveyism would eventually inspire others, ranging from the Nation of Islam to the Rastafari movement
The Nation of Islam is an African American political and religious movement, founded in Detroit, Michigan, United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on July 4, 1930.
Rastafari is a religion which developed in Jamaica in the 1930s, following the coronation of Haile Selassie I as Emperor of Ethiopia in 1930.
Garveyism intended persons of African ancestry in the diaspora to "redeem" the nations of Africa and for the European colonial powers to leave the continent.
His essential ideas about Africa were stated in an editorial in the Negro World entitled "African Fundamentalism", where he wrote: "Our union must know no clime, boundary, or nationality… to let us hold together under all climes and in every country…"
Negro World was a weekly newspaper, established in 1918 in New York City, that served as the voice of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League, an organization founded by Marcus Garvey and Amy Ashwood in 1914.