Malcolm Bligh Turnbull is the 29th and current Prime Minister of Australia.
Malcolm Turnbull, Julie Bishop speak after winning leadership ballot by ABC News (Australia)
He first served as parliamentary leader of the Liberal Party of Australia and as opposition leader from 2008 to 2009, and became parliamentary leader and Prime Minister after defeating Tony Abbott at the 2015 Liberal leadership spill.
Anthony John "Tony" Abbott is an Australian politician who was the 28th Prime Minister of Australia, from 18 September 2013 to 15 September 2015.
Liberal Party is the name for dozens of political parties around the world.
In Full: Malcolm Turnbull to challenge Tony Abbott by ABC News (Australia)
The Turnbull Government was re-elected at the 2016 federal election though with a bare one-seat majority.
Turnbull attended Sydney Grammar School before going to the University of Sydney, where he attained a Bachelor of Arts and a Bachelor of Laws.
Sydney Grammar School is an independent, non-denominational, day school for boys, located in Darlinghurst, Edgecliff and St Ives, all suburbs of Sydney, Australia.
The Bachelor of Laws is an undergraduate degree in law originating in England and offered in most common law jurisdictions.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
He then attended Brasenose College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar, where he attained a Bachelor of Civil Law.
Brasenose College, officially The King's Hall and College of Brasenose, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom.
Bachelor of Civil Law is the name of various degrees in law conferred by English-language universities.
For over two decades prior to entering politics, he worked in both personal and managerial positions as a journalist, a lawyer, a merchant banker, a venture capitalist, and chairman of the Australian Republican Movement.
Venture capital is a type of private equity, a form of financing that is provided by firms or funds to small, early-stage, emerging firms that are deemed to have high growth potential, or which have demonstrated high growth.
The Australian Republic Movement is a non-partisan member-driven organisation campaigning for Australia to become an independent republic.
A merchant bank is historically a bank dealing in commercial loans and investment.
A multi-millionaire, Turnbull purchased a stake of internet service provider Ozemail in 1994 for $500,000 and sold his stake just months before the dot com bubble burst in 1999 for $57 million, paving the way to his current estimated net worth of above $200 million with entries in the BRW Rich 200 list.
The Financial Review Rich List, formerly known as the BRW Rich 200, is a list of Australia's two hundred wealthiest individuals and families, ranked by personal net worth published annually in The Australian Financial Review.
OzEmail was a major Internet service provider in Australia, until it was acquired by the iiNet ISP on 28 February 2005.
A millionaire is an individual whose net worth or wealth is equal to or exceeds one million units of currency.
Turnbull failed to gain Liberal preselection for the Division of Wentworth in New South Wales, prior to the 1981 by-election and again prior to the 2001 federal election.
Preselection is the process by which a candidate is selected, usually by a political party, to contest an election for political office.
He was finally successful, and was elected to the House of Representatives for the seat of Wentworth at the 2004 federal election.
Elevated to the Howard Cabinet in January 2007, he briefly served as Minister for the Environment and Water.
Following the defeat of the Liberal government at the 2007 federal election, Turnbull declared himself a candidate in the subsequent leadership election, but lost to Brendan Nelson by three votes.
Brendan John Nelson AO is a former Australian politician and former federal Opposition leader.
Following a period of poor opinion polling, Turnbull challenged and defeated Nelson by four votes and became Leader of the Opposition.
Turnbull is considered to be a part of the moderate wing of the Liberal Party, with his views on issues such as climate change, republicanism, same-sex marriage and abortion differing from the conservative wing.
This led to persistent tensions within the party, with Turnbull's support for the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme proposed by the Rudd Government in late 2009 eventually causing a split.
The Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme was a cap-and-trade emissions trading scheme for anthropogenic greenhouse gases proposed by the Rudd government, as part of its climate change policy, which had been due to commence in Australia in 2010.
Tony Abbott, who was opposed to the scheme, subsequently challenged Turnbull and defeated him for the leadership by a single vote.
Initially intending to leave politics, Turnbull remained in parliament and eventually became Minister for Communications in the Abbott Government following the defeat of the Labor Government at the 2013 federal election.
On 14 September 2015, citing consistently poor opinion polling for the government, Turnbull resigned as Minister for Communications and challenged Abbott in a leadership ballot, which he won by ten votes.
Turnbull was subsequently sworn in as Prime Minister the following day and formed the Turnbull Government.
Opinion polling prior to the 2016 federal election indicated a honeymoon period which lasted for several months until the beginning of April, when Turnbull entered net negative satisfaction rating territory and the Coalition's two-party polling lead had evaporated, right through to the knife-edge 2016 election.
In the following days of uncertainty, Turnbull negotiated with the crossbench and secured confidence and supply support from Bob Katter, Andrew Wilkie and Cathy McGowan in the event of a hung parliament and resulting minority government.
In a parliamentary system of government, a hung parliament is an expression used to describe a state of a parliament when no single political party has an absolute majority of seats in the parliament and therefore has no legitimate mandate to form a government.
A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament.
Robert Carl Katter is an Australian federal politician, a member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1993 for the Division of Kennedy, and the leader of Katter's Australian Party.