Malala Yousafzai is a Pakistani activist for female education and the youngest-ever Nobel Prize laureate.
The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, and/or scientific advances.
Female education is a catch-all term for a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education for girls and women.
Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a federal parliamentary republic in South Asia.
Malala Yousafzai Nobel Peace Prize Speech by Malala Fund
She is known mainly for human rights advocacy for education and for women in her native Swat Valley in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of northwest Pakistan, where the local Taliban had at times banned girls from attending school.
The Taliban, alternatively spelled Taleban, is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war within that country.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country.
Swat ; is a river valley and an administrative district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.
Malala Yousafzai Accepts the 2014 Liberty Medal by National Constitution Center
Malala's advocacy has since grown into an international movement.
Her family runs a chain of schools in the region.
In early 2009, when she was 11–12, Malala wrote a blog under a pseudonym for the BBC Urdu detailing her life under Taliban occupation, their attempts to take control of the valley, and her views on promoting education for girls in the Swat Valley.
BBC Urdu is the Urdu language station of the BBC World Service, accompanied by its website, which serves as a news portal and provides online access to radio broadcasts.
The following summer, journalist Adam B. Ellick made a New York Times documentary about her life as the Pakistani military intervened in the region.
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by The New York Times Company.
Malala rose in prominence, giving interviews in print and on television, and she was nominated for the International Children's Peace Prize by South African activist Desmond Tutu.
The International Children’s Peace Prize is awarded annually to a child who has made a significant contribution to advocating children's rights and improving the situation of vulnerable children such as orphans, child labourers and children with HIV/AIDS.
Desmond Mpilo Tutu, CH is a South African social rights activist and retired Anglican bishop who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid.
On the afternoon of 9 October 2012, Malala boarded her school bus in the northwest Pakistani district of Swat.
A gunman asked for her by name, then pointed a pistol at her and fired three shots.
One bullet hit the left side of Malala's forehead, travelled under her skin through the length of her face, and went into her shoulder.
In the days immediately following the attack, she remained unconscious and in critical condition, but later her condition improved enough for her to be sent to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Birmingham, England, for intensive rehabilitation.
Birmingham is a major city and metropolitan borough of West Midlands, England.
On 12 October, a group of 50 Muslim clerics in Pakistan issued a fatwā against those who tried to kill her, but the Taliban reiterated their intent to kill Malala and her father, Ziauddin Yousafzai.
Ziauddin Yousafzai is a Pakistani diplomat best known as the father of Nobel laureate Malala Yousafzai, a young woman who protested against the Taliban for the education rights of children, especially for Pakistani girls.
A fatwā in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
The assassination attempt sparked a national and international outpouring of support for Malala.
Deutsche Welle wrote in January 2013 that Malala may have become "the most famous teenager in the world."
United Nations Special Envoy for Global Education Gordon Brown launched a UN petition in Malala's name, demanding that all children worldwide be in school by the end of 2015; it helped lead to the ratification of Pakistan's first Right to Education Bill.
James Gordon Brown, PC is a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and the Leader of the Labour Party from 2007 to 2010.
The 2013, 2014 and 2015 issues of Time magazine featured Malala as one of "The 100 Most Influential People in the World".
She was the winner of Pakistan's first National Youth Peace Prize, and the recipient of the 2013 Sakharov Prize.
The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, commonly known as the Sakharov Prize, honours individuals and groups of people who have dedicated their lives to the defense of human rights and freedom of thought.
The National Malala Peace Prize is a Pakistani peace prize for those under 18 years old.
In July that year, she spoke at the headquarters of the United Nations to call for worldwide access to education, and in October the Government of Canada announced its intention that its parliament confer Honorary Canadian citizenship upon Malala.
Honorary Canadian citizenship is an honour wherein Canadian citizenship is bestowed by the Governor-General-in-Council, with the approval of parliament where appropriate, on foreigners of exceptional merit.
The Government of Canada, French: Gouvernement du Canada, or more formally Her Majesty's Government, is the federal administration of Canada.
The headquarters of the United Nations is a complex in New York City designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer.
In February 2014, she was nominated for the World Children's Prize in Sweden.
Even though she was fighting for women's rights as well as children's rights, she did not describe herself as feminist when asked on Forbes Under 30 Summit in 2014.
Children's rights are the human rights of children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to minors.
A woman is a female human; that is, of the species Homo sapiens.