the Keystone Pipeline


The Keystone Pipeline System is an oil pipeline system in Canada and the United States, commissioned in 2010.

The United States of America, commonly referred to as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

The Latest on the Keystone Pipeline by thomhartmann


It runs from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in Alberta to refineries in Illinois and Texas, and also to oil tank farms and an oil pipeline distribution center in Cushing, Oklahoma.

The Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin is a vast sedimentary basin underlying 1,400,000 square kilometres of Western Canada including southwestern Manitoba, southern Saskatchewan, Alberta, northeastern British Columbia and the southwest corner of the Northwest Territories.

Illinois is a state in the midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1818.

Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.

Obama Kills Keystone XL Pipeline by The Young Turks


The pipeline came to the a greater prominence of attention when a planned fourth phase, Keystone XL, attracted growing environmental protest, became a symbol of the battle over climate change and fossil fuels, and in 2015 was rejected by United States President Barack Obama.

Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician who is the 44th and current President of the United States.


Three phases of the project are in operation.


The Keystone Pipeline, delivering oil from Hardisty, Alberta, over 3,456 kilometres to the junction at Steele City, Nebraska, and on to Wood River Refinery in Roxana, Illinois, and Patoka Oil Terminal Hub north of Patoka, Illinois, completed in June 2010.

The Wood River Refinery is an oil refinery located in Roxana, Illinois, approximately 15 miles north of St. Louis, Missouri, on the east side of the Mississippi River.


The Keystone-Cushing extension, running 468 kilometres from Steele City to storage and distribution facilities at Cushing, Oklahoma, completed in February 2011.


The Gulf Coast Extension, running 784 kilometres from Cushing to refineries at Port Arthur, Texas was completed in January 2014, and a lateral pipeline to refineries at Houston, Texas and a terminal will be completed mid-2016, going online the following year.

Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth-most populous city in the United States, located in Southeast Texas near the Gulf of Mexico.

Port Arthur is a city in Jefferson County within the Beaumont−Port Arthur Metropolitan Statistical Area of the U.S. state of Texas.


The proposed Keystone XL Pipeline would have essentially duplicated the Phase I pipeline between Hardisty, Alberta, and Steele City, Nebraska, with a shorter route and a larger-diameter pipe.


It would run through Baker, Montana, where American-produced light crude oil from the Williston Basin of Montana and North Dakota would be added to the Keystone's current throughput of synthetic crude oil and diluted bitumen from the oil sands of Canada.

The Williston Basin is a large intracratonic sedimentary basin in eastern Montana, western North Dakota, South Dakota, and southern Saskatchewan, that is known for its rich deposits of petroleum and potash.

Synthetic crude is the output from a bitumen/extra heavy oil upgrader facility used in connection with oil sand production.

North Dakota is the 39th state of the United States, having been admitted to the union on November 2, 1889.


However, after more than six years of review, President Barack Obama announced on November 6, 2015, his administration's rejection of the fourth phase.


Newly elected American president Donald Trump said that he would "absolutely approve it, 100 per cent."


The first two phases have the capacity to deliver up to 590,000 barrels per day of oil into the Mid-West refineries.


Phase III has capacity to deliver up to 700,000 barrels per day to the Texas refineries.


By comparison, U.S. oil production averaged 9,400,000 barrels per day in first-half 2015, with gross exports of 500,000 barrels per day through July 2015.

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